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action activity Adam Smith affective anger Animal Intelligence animals appears appetite arise attempt behaviour of living biological biologist chap characteristic cognitive conatus curiosity definition of Instinct Descartes desire determined difficulty discussion distinguish Dugald Stewart element emotional tendencies Evolution explanation fact factor fear feeling gregarious instinct Groos Hobbes Hume hunting instinct Hutcheson idea imitation important individual innate instinct-experience instinctive behaviour instinctive impulse instinctive tendencies Intelligence interpretation introspective intuitive knowledge involved kind knowledge Leibniz Lloyd Morgan Malebranche McDougall McDougall's meaning mental merely mind natural inclinations natural selection original pain passions perception perceptual experience phenomena philosophy phrenology physiological play pleasure point of view present primary emotion principle Principles of Psychology propensities psycho psycho-physical parallelism psychological account recognized reflex reflex action regarded relation satisfaction Schopenhauer seems sensation sense sentiment Social Psychology specific suggestion sympathy theory unconscious universe of discourse view of Instinct whole
Page 43 - But though animals learn many parts of their knowledge from observation, there are also many parts of it which they derive from the original hand of Nature ; which much exceed the share of capacity they possess on ordinary occasions ; and in which they improve, little or nothing, by the longest practice and experience. These we denominate INSTINCTS, and are so apt to admire, as something very extraordinary, and inexplicable by all the disquisitions of human understanding.
Page 99 - Instinct is reflex action into which there is imported the element of consciousness. The term is therefore a generic one, comprising all those faculties of mind which are concerned in conscious and adaptive action, antecedent to individual experience, without necessary knowledge of the relation between means employed and ends attained, but similarly performed under similar and frequently recurring circumstances by all the individuals of the same species.
Page 77 - For my own part, I look upon it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor from any laws of mechanism, but, according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first mover, and the divine energy acting in the creatures.
Page 16 - McDougall defines an instinct as an inherited or innate psycho-physical disposition which determines its possessor to perceive and to pay attention to objects of a certain class, to experience an emotional excitement of a particular quality on perceiving such an object, and to act in regard to it in a particular manner, or at least to experience an impulse to such action.
Page 46 - When we see a stroke aimed and just ready to fall upon the leg or arm of another person, we naturally shrink and draw back our own leg or our own arm; and when it does fall, we feel it in some measure, and are hurt by it as well as the sufferer. The mob, when they are gazing at a dancer on the slack rope, naturally writhe and twist and balance their own bodies, as they see him do, and as they feel that they themselves must do if in his situation.
Page 45 - We speak not strictly and philosophically when we talk of the combat of passion and of reason. Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them.
Page 137 - I see meaning as the blue-grey tip of a kind of scoop, which has a bit of yellow above it (probably a part of the handle), and which is just digging into a dark mass of what appears to be plastic material.
Page 25 - ... the customary mode of action of all the passions is simply this, that they dispose the soul to desire those things which nature tells us are of use, and to persist in this desire, and also bring about that same agitation of spirits which customarily causes them to dispose the body to the movement which serves for the carrying into effect of these things...
Page 43 - But our wonder will perhaps cease or diminish when we consider that the experimental reasoning itself, which we possess in common with beasts and on which the whole conduct of life depends, is nothing but a species of instinct or mechanical power that acts in us unknown to ourselves, and in its chief operations is not directed by any such relations or comparisons of ideas as are the proper objects of our intellectual faculties.