Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewart, the Second and Third Marquesses of Londonderry: With Annals of Contemporary Events in which They Bore a Part ...

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W. Blackwood and Sons, 1861 - Great Britain
 

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Contents

Changes in the Allied plan of attack
9
Extreme anxiety and terror in Dresden
10
Remarkable conversation between Cathcart and Moreau
12
An attack on Dresden is again resolved on
13
Napoleons return towards Dresden
14
Napoleons change of plan in consequence of the information from Dres den on the 25th
15
Danger of the Emperor on approaching Dresden
16
Dispositions of Napoleon to defend Dresden
17
Commencement of the storm of Dresden
18
Sortie of Napoleons Guards
20
Which is attended by great success
21
Forces on both sides on the next day
22
Disposition of tho French troops
23
Disposition of the Allies
25
Mortal wound of Moreau in the centre
26
A retreat ordered
27
Disasters and difficulties with which it was attended
29
Great advantages thus gained by Napoleon and discouragement of the Allies
31
Napoleons plan of operations
32
Forces under Vandamme
33
Great importance of the possession of Tbplitz
34
Advance to Culm and extreme terror at Toplitz
35
Vandammos first battle at Culm
36
Preparations for the second battle of Culm
37
Measures on both sides immediately before the battle
38
Total defeat of the French
39
Total defeat of Vandamme
40
Desperate conflict in the pass in rear
41
Great moral effect of this victory
42
Wound and honour of Sir Charles Stewart
43
Receipt of the disastrous news by Napoleon
44
Napoleons false charges against Vandamme for disobedience of orders
45
Great error here committed by Napoleon
46
Simultaneous movement of Oudinot on Berlin
47
Battle of Gross Beeren
48
Real cause of this fatal dispersion of forces
49
Advances of Macdonald against Blucher
50
Bluchers simultaneous advance against him
51
Defeat of Macdonald with immense loss
52
Retreat and immense losses of the French
53
Effect of these disasters on Napoleon
54
Causes of Napoleons early success and late disasters
55
Napoleons march to support Macdonald
56
Blucher falls back and Napoleon returns to Dresden
57
Advanco of Ney against Bernadotte
58
Battle of Dennewitz
59
Decisive victory of the Allies
60
Alarming position of the French army
61
Renewed movement of Schwartzenberg against Dresden
62
Action at Nollendorf and retreat of the Allies
63
Napoleons conversation with St Cyr on the art of war
64
Halt of Napoleon on the summit of the Geyersberg
65
Reasons of Napoleons retreat to Dresden
66
Fresh combats on the mountains
67
Reasons on both sides for delaying great operations
68
Sharp action on the French left followed by a retreat
69
Great losses of the French in this hill campaign
70
Great successes of the Allied light troops in the French rear
71
Fresh treaties concluded between England Russia and Prussia
72
Napoleon in vain marches against Blucher and returns to Dresden
73
Alarming intelligence from the rear and Lower Elbe
74
Napoleons new plan of operations
75
Forces and situation of the Allies
76
Allied plan of operations against Napoleon
77
Dissatisfaction of the Allies with Bernadotte and consequent mission of Sir Charles Stewart to his headquarters
78
Napoleons plan for the remainder of the campaign Page
79
Tage
87
CHAPTER XI
90
Advance of the Grand Army into the plains of Lepsic
92
Napoleons plans at this period
93
Napoleons advance against Blucher
94
The opposite armies mutually pass each other
95
Timid conduct of Bernadotte which endangers Blucher
97
Napoleon in consequence leaves St Cyr at Dresden
98
Napoleons own account of his views at this time
99
Discontent in the French army at this project
100
Napoleons interesting conversation with Marshal Marmont 101102
101
The Emperor is obliged to change his plan by advices from Murat
103
Reasons for Napoleons change of plan
104
Severe cavalry action at Borna on the 14th
105
Inactivity of Bernadotte at Kbthen
106
Fall of the kingdom of Westphalia and defection of Bavaria
108
Interesting conversation of Napoleon with his marshals on the evening of the 14th
112
Position of the French and Allies
114
Forces on both sides
116
Description of the town of Leipsic
117
Schwartzenbergs address to his troops
118
Commencement of the battle of Wachau
119
Battle at Wachau in the centre
120
Great advantages gained by the French in the centre
121
The Allies are further worsted in the centre
122
Grand cavalry attack on the centre
123
Which is repulsed with great loss
124
Close of the battle and its results
125
Dispositions for the battle of Mbckern
127
Battle there in which the French are worsted
128
French account of this battle
129
Decisive importance of this battle
131
Both armies are inactive on the 17th 134 38 Extreme difficulties of Napoleons situation and negotiation with Meet feldt
138
Which leads to no suspension of hostilities and the battle is postponed till next day
141
The Crown Prince is at length brought forward
142
Napoleon makes no preparations for a retreat on the 17th
144
Napoleons final dispositions for the battle
145
Allied dispositions for the battle
146
Napoleons nocturnal visit to Ney
148
Commencement of the battle
149
Success of the Allies on their left at Dolitz
150
Desperate attack on Probstheyda
151
Probstheyda is regainod by the French
152
Operations in the north and desertion of the Saxons
153
Action between Ney Marmont Blucher and Bernadotte
154
Close of the battle and its results on both sides
156
Napoleon on the evening after the battle
157
Immense embarrassment occasioned by the single line of retreat to the French
159
Last interview of Napoleon and the King of Saxony
160
Preparations for an assault of Leipsic
161
Storming of Leipsic
162
Blowing up of the bridge and surrender of the troops in the town
164
Death of Prince Poniatowski and capture of the whole French rearguard and losses on both sides
165
Entry of the Allied sovereigns and generals into Leipsic
166
Deplorablo state of the French army during the retreat to the Rhine
168
New distribution of the Allied armies
172
Disastrous retreat to the Rhine and great losses incurred in course of it
173
Battle of Hanau and retreat of the French across the Rhine
174
Napoleons orders to the Grand Park and garrisons in the rear
175
Deplorable state and surrender of the fortresses
177
Immense force displayed by Napoleon on this occasion
178
Removal of Sir R Wilson to the Austrian army in Italy
179
The real reason of this change
180
Powerful agency of the Stewart family in the deliverance of Europe
182
Immense errors of Napoleon in this campaign
184
CHAPTER XII
186
State of affairs in Italy
187
Gloomy aspect of affairs in Spain at the same period
188
Discontent and despair in the interior
189
Cause of this inactivity on the part of the Allies
190
Pacific offers of the Allies from Frankfort by Mettcrnich
192
Proposals intrusted to M de Saint Aignan
193
Similar assurances of pacific intentions from Russia and England and terms proposed
194
Mannheim for the seat of a congress
195
Ruinous condition of the French fortresses 17 Dreadful mortality in the army on the Rhine especially at Mayencc
206
Measures for the defence of Flanders Holland and the northern frontier
207
Treaty of Valencay with Ferdinand VII
208
Treaty of Napoleon with the Pope and of the Allies with Murat
209
State of the Allied forces on the Rhine and in Germany
211
Sir Charles Stewart with Bernadotte in north of Germany 212 24 Bernadotte concludes a convention with Davoust securing his return to France
213
Which leads to a counterrevolution in Holland
215
Dissatisfaction of Lord Castlereagh at the terms proposed at Frankfort
218
Which are generally acceded to by the Allied Cabinets
220
Forces of the Allies and plan of the campaign
222
Double invasion of France from Switzerland and Coblentz
224
Immense subsidies granted by Lord Castlereagh on behalf of Great Bri tain to the Allied Powers
225
Napoleons measures to recruit his army and his retreat before the in vaders
226
Meeting of the Legislative Body at Paris and its disaffected feelings
228
Napoleons address to the Legislative Body and references to committees 230 34 Resolution of the Committee on the subject
232
Paragraph proposed by M Laine1 in the Report
233
Napoleon in great anger prorogues the Assembly
234
His noble speech to the Senators 236 39 Reflections on these speeches of Napoleon
237
Appointment of Lord Castlereagh as minister plenipotentiary with the Allied sovereigns
239
Lord Castlereaghs instructions and powers and his reception at Allied headquarters
241
Napoleon sends M de Caulaincourt to the Allied headquarters as pleni potentiary
245
Embarrassment of M de Metternich and fortunate arrival of Lord Castle reagh
246
Sir Charles Stewarts account of the state of the opposite armies at this period
248
Small amount of Napoleons forces and his desperate situation
249
Napoleons plan of the campaign and noble language
250
Chatillon is fixed on as the place of congress and near approach of the two armies
251
Forces on both sides
253
Battle of La Rothiere and defeat of the French
254
State of the Allied counsels on Lord Castlereaghs arrival
256
The Emperor Alexanders conversation with Lord Castlereagh
258
Composition of the Congress of Chatillon
259
Views of Lord Castlereagh on the negotiations 261
261
His representations and entire accord with Austria
264
Answer of Alexander
265
Lord Castlereaghs projects for the separate interests of Qreat Britain and their admission by the Allies
266
Metternichs secret effort to get Napoleon to negotiate on fair terms
267
Instructions to the British plenipotentiaries and preliminary conferences
268
Napoleon at length gives full powers to Caulaincourt
270
Agreement as to the form of the negotiations
271
Project of the Allies for a basis of pacification
272
de Caulaincourts reply to the Allies
273
Caulaincourt endeavours to gain time and to obtain a suspension of hos tilities
279
Separation of the Allied armies of which Napoleon resolves to take advantage
280
Serious error of Blucher at this period
281
Napoleons project of attacking Blucher in detail
282
March on and victory of Champaubert
284
Napoleons joy and sanguine expectations at this victory
285
Battle of ChateauThierry
287
Movements of Schwartzenberg towards Paris
290
Division between the Czar and Lord Castlereagh and Prince Metternich as to resuming hostilities
292
Proposals of the Allies on which a suspension of hostilities was to depend
293
Caulaincourts advice to Napoleon regarding these terms
294
Napoleons indignant answer
295
Napoleons secret letter to the Emperor of Austria
296
Separate jealousies between Russia and Qreat Britain
311
Lord Castlereaghs reply
313
Council at BarsurAube
316
Proceedings at it
318
Lord Castlereaghs measures to pacify Bernadotte 320 97 Division of the Allies and Lord Castlereaghs efforts to unite them
322
Treaty of Chaumont
324
Secret articles of the treaty
325
Which was a virtual dissolution of the Congress of Chatillon
326
Slow progress of the negotiation and changing instructions to the pleni potentiaries
327
Final terms proposed on Feb 17
328
Caulaincourts answer and counterproject
329
Contreprojet at length presented by Caulaincourt 330 106 Rejected by the Allies
331
Final proposals of Napoleon and rupture of the Congress
332
Metternichs letter to Caulaincourt urging the acceptance of the terms of the Allies
333
Chances in Napoleons favour and great importance of Lord Castle reaghs presence
337
Source of divisions regarding Poland and Alexanders views on it
339
Difficulties in Italy
342
Difficulties about Genoa from Lord William Bentincks proclamation
343
Lord Castlereaghs policy as to the Duke dAngouleme with Wel lington
345
Prince of Oranges imprudent and premature attempt in Flanders 847
348
Seeming justice of Napoleons pleas at the Congress
349
CHAPTER XIII
352
Continued retreat of the Allied Grand Army
354
Movements of the Army of Silesia
355
Renewed active operations by the Grand Army Combat of Barsur Aube
357
Important retaking of Soissons
359
Pag 9 Advance of Napoleon in pursuit and Blucher takes post at Craonne
363
Napoleons forces and reasons for hazarding an attack
364
Napoleon is repulsed at Soissons but takes BcrryauBac and crosses the Aisne
367
Battle of Craonne
368
Winzingerodes detour obliges Blueher to retreat
369
Retreat of the Russians and results of the battle
370
Material results of the battle
371
Its moral results 872
372
The Allies concentrate around Laon and Napoleon advances to attack them
373
Plan and movements of Napoleon
375
Preparations for a nocturnal attack on Marmont
377
Napoleon continues the attack on the 10th
378
Desperate position of Napoleons affairs
380
Secret history of the inactivity of Blucher after the battle
381
Beneficial effect of the battle of Laon on the Allied army
383
Gloomy state of general feeling in Paris
384
Napoleon moves against Schwartzenberg
386
Consternation in the Grand Army at his approach
387
Napoleons movements and those of the Allies
388
Battle of ArcisBUrAubc
389
The French are repulsed
390
The French retire on the second day
392
Napoleons designs after the battle
393
NapoleonB march to St Dizier
394
Important interrupted despatches of Napoleon 895
396
Considerations urged on the other side
397
Volkonskys opinions on an advance to Paris
399
Defeat of Winzingerode in following Napoleon
401
First combat of F6reChampcnoise
402
Second combat at FereChampcnoise
403
Results of these combats and advance of the Allies to Paris
405
Advance of the Allied armies to Paris
407
Extreme consternation in Paris
409
It is determined that the Empress and King of Rome should go beyond the Loire
411
Departure of the Empress and King of Rome for the Loire
412
Treacherous conduct of Talleyrand
413
Forces of the French for the defence of Paris
414
Forces of the Allies and their plan of attack
415
Battle of Paris
417
Results of the battle
418
Entry of the Allies into Paris
420
Sincerity of the feelings of the Parisians on this occasion
421
Meeting at M Talleyrands
423
Imprudent declaration of the Prince Regent to the Russian ambassador in favour of the Bourbons 313
424
Dethronement of Napoleon by the Senate and appointment of a pro visional government
425
Alexanders noble speech to the Senate
427
Dethronement of the Emperor
428
Napoleons movements and return towards Paris
430
Napoleon returns to the neighbourhood of Paris
432
Dialogue between Napoleon and General Belliard
433
Napoleons conversation with Caulaincourt whom he sends to Paris to negotiate and gain time
434
Who goes on to Paris and Napoleon retires to Fontainebleau
435
Failure of his mission
437
Which was mainly owing to Lord Castlereagh being at the Austrian headquarters
439
Napoleons rejection of the proposals
441
Napoleons plans for resuming hostilities
442
Increasing irritation of the Russian and Prussian officers against the Austrians 314
443
Napoleon is still resolved to continue the war 443 74 Discouragement and division of the army
444
Reasons which determined Marshal Marmont to join the Allies
445
Marmonts conference with Alexander and defection of his corps in his absence
446
Interview of the Marshals with Napoleon at Fontainebleau 448 78 Continuation of the discussion 449 79 Napoleon feigns to consent to abdicate in fa...
450
Interview of the plenipotentiaries with the Emperor Alexander
453
Marshal Neys answer
455
Their interview with Napoleon at Fountainebleau
456
Napoleon agrees to resign the crown
458
Sir Charles Stewarts important letter with regard to giving Elba as a residence to Napoleon
460
Negotiations with Murat and the Austrians in Italy
461
Difficulties in the Low Countries
464
Lord Castlereaghs views of the faults of the new constitution in France
465
Difficulties with regard to Norway
466
French prisoners of war in Great Britain at this period
468
Difficulty about the fleet at Antwerp
469
Untoward aspect of affairs in Italy in the end of April 471 95 Universal defection at Fontainebleau and Blois from the Emperor and Empress
473
Adieu of Fontainebleau
475
Treaty of April 111814
477
Arrival of Wellington at Paris and his reception there as Ambassador 477 99 Difficulties of the negotiation for peace so far as France and the other P...
479
Convention on April 23 for evacuation of all the French conquests
480
Definitive treaty
482
The secret treaty
483
Honours bestowed on Lord Castlereagh and discussion in Parliament on the Peace
485
Mr Cannings Gloge of the Peace
486
General errors as to the fall of Napoleon
488
Napoleon had good reasons for his latter conduct though it ruined bim 489 108 Great effects of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewarts courage
490
Cooperation of Alexander Wellington and Castlereagh in Napoleons overthrow
491
Which of the three was the greatest?
492
CHAPTER XIV
494
The restoration of the Bourbons was the great security
495
Reasons of Lord Castlereaghs favouring that object
496
His views in regard to Norway and Sweden
500
Assembling of the Congress of Vienna
502
It is assembled
503
Points on which they were all agreed and on which they differed
504
The Emperor of Russia on Poland
505
Views of Prussia
506
Views of Austria
509
And of France 610
512
Universal passion in Great Britain for the abolition of the slave trade everywhere
515
Difficulties thrown in the way by the French
517
Preliminary question which occupied the Congress
519
Separation of the Congress into committees
520
Formation of the German Constitution
521
Which is brought to light and extremely irritateB France
525
Indignation of Alexander at this 626
527
Lord Castlereagh and Metternich come to an understanding
529
Lord Castlereaghs observations to Alexander
531
Measures of Talleyrand in consequence to propitiate Russia
535
Russia occupies Poland and gives Saxony to Prussia
536
Warlike preparations of Russia 537 34 Change in the policy of England regarding Saxony
538
Warlike measures of France and Bavaria
539
The Emperor of Russia in some degree modifies his views on Poland and Saxony
540
Stormy interview of Alexander and Talleyrand
541
And with M de Metternich
543
Progress of the two Emperors in Hungary and formal opening of the Congress
544
Lord Castlereagh succeeds in shaking the Prussian Cabinet
545
Effect it produced on the King of Prussia
546
Interview of the Czar with the King of Prussia
547
Fresh and secure union of Russia and Prussia
549
Decided note of Austria
551
Warlike preparations of Austria France and Bavaria
552
The Czar begins to yield
553
Secret treaty between England France and Austria
554
Origin of the contest with America at this time
556
Balanced success during the war with America 557 51 Lord Castlereaghs instructions to the British commissioners at Ghent
558
Progress of the negotiations
561
Concessions of Russia in regard to the Polish question at Vienna 564 54 Lord Castlereaghs efforts to preserve the nationality and a constitution for Po...
566
Difficulty as to who were to be members of the Committee
567
Difficulties in forming a barrier in the Low Countries
569
It is ultimately agreed to give Luxemburg to the King of the Nether lands
572
Affairs of Italy
573
Reasons for annexation of Genoa to Piedmont
574
Lord Castlereaghs views on the Spanish Government
575
Affairs of Naples
577
Bad faith on both sides with regard to Napoleon and Murat
579
Affairs of Switzerland
581
Difficulties experienced by Lord Castlereagh in his efforts to procure the abolition of the slave trade
582
Lord Castlereaghs conference with Talleyrand on the subject
583
Resolution of the Congress on the subject
585
Lord Castlereagh leaves the Congress of Vienna and returns to England to meet Parliament
587
Arrival of Wellington at Vienna
588
Murats abrupt decision which causes a declaration of war against him
589
Steps of the Allies against him
590
Abortive negotiation for a marriage between the Houses of Russia and France
591
Resolution of the Parma question
593
His return to London through Paris
594
Return of Napoleon from Elba
595
Effect it produced on the Congress
596
Effect of Napoleons return in concluding the Saxon question
598
Great preparations of the Allies for war with France
599
Their determination not to treat with Napoleon or any of his family
602
Lord Castlereaghs speech against Napoleon
604
Great preparations of Great Britain for the war with Napoleon
605
Lord Castlereaghs reception in the House of Commons and his defence of the Treaty of Vienna
607
Battle of Waterloo and its effects on the Allied sovereigns
608
Return of Lord Castlereagh to Paris
617
Lord Castlereaghs efforts to effect the restoration of the works of art from Paris
618
Final treaty of Vienna
620
Review of the Russians in the plain of Vertus
622
Memoir from foreign artists in Rome to Lord Castlereagh
623
Removal of Napoleon to St Helena
625
Negotiations for a final peace
626
Enormous demands of the Allied Powers
627
Terms on which peace is at length concluded 681
634
Confirmation of the same principles from subsequent experience
635
Reason of the territorial arrangements of the Congress of Vienna
636
Reasons why revolutionary Powers ever incline to France
638
Inconsistency of the foreign and domestic policy of this country in regard to revolutions
640
Light which these views throw on Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewarts memory
641

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Page 563 - Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River...
Page 563 - Whereas neither that point of the highlands lying due north from the source of the river St. Croix, and designated in the former treaty of peace between the two Powers as the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, nor the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, has yet been ascertained...
Page 355 - Soyez le premier aux balles. Il n'est plus question d'agir comme dans les derniers temps, mais il faut reprendre ses bottes et sa résolution de 93 ! Quand les Français verront votre panache aux avant-postes et qu'ils vous verront vous exposer le premier aux coups de fusil, vous en ferez ce que vous voudrez !
Page 416 - Citizens of Paris ! A hostile column has descended on Meaux. It advances ; but the Emperor follows close behind, at the head of a victorious army. The Council of Regency has provided for the safety of the Empress and the King of Rome.
Page 559 - Government as a sine quA non of peace ; and that they will, under this head, require not only that a full and express recognition of their limits shall take place : you will also throw out the importance of the two States entering into arrangements, which may hereafter place their mutual relations with each other, as well as with the several Indian nations, upon a footing of less jealousy and irritation. This may be best effected by a mutual guarantee of the Indian possessions, as they shall be established...
Page 320 - Blucher's army was reinforced in time — the hattle of Laon was fought successfully, and no further efforts of Buonaparte could oppose the march of the allies on Paris, and their triumphant occupation of that city.
Page 322 - The enemy is, in my view, a source of danger much less to be dreaded than what arises among ourselves. I cannot too often represent to you the real state of the minds of those weak men by whom Europe is governed. The seeming agreement at Langres covered distrust and hate. A little success will cement them again ; but if they are to be severely tried in adversity, their dissolution is certain. Your presence has done much, and would, I have no doubt, continue to sustain them in misfortune ; but without...
Page 417 - Romainville, the enemy retiring to those of Belleville behind them. The 4th corps supported this attack more to the left, and was directed on the heights of Rosny and on Charenton.
Page 563 - River, has yet been ascertained; and whereas that part of the boundary line between the dominions of the two Powers which extends from the source of the river St. Croix directly north to the abovementioned northwest angle of Nova Scotia, thence along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence...
Page 630 - French connection, the other leads to unite all Frenchmen against us, or rather against the Power that shall be found in possession of their spoils; and as the King of the Netherlands would probably be the first to be attacked, we have more reason to weigh well the course to be pursued.

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