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First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
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absolute zero adiabatic arbitrary atoms Boltzman Bose Carnot cycle Carnot engine chapter chemical potential chemical reaction components Consider constant pressure constant temperature defined degree of freedom difference diffusion distribution electrical electrons enthalpy entropy entropy increase equal equation of continuity equilibrium pressure equilibrium temperature external field external forces Fermi systems flow fluids formula free enthalpy function gases heat exchange heat flux ideal gas identical increase of entropy integral intensive variables interaction irreversible process isochoric process isolated system isothermal kinetic liquid solution molar concentration molecule motion Nernst's third law non-uniformity number density number of moles number of particles obtain Onsager's reciprocal relations paramagnetic phase equilibrium phase space phase transition physical pure substance reservoir reversible Carnot second law shown in Fig solid solvent specific heat statistical mechanics sub-systems surrounding tensor theory thermal thermodynamic equilibrium thermodynamic potentials thermodynamic system throttling process vanish vapor vector velocity virtual process