Building safer cities: the future of disaster risk
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 2003 - Business & Economics - 299 pages
Vulnerability to disaster impacts is an increasingly important aspect of urban development, and a number of ongoing trends have the potential to cause even more severe and broader disaster impacts, including increased environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change, population growth in cities, and the effects of globalisation. The effects of disasters are particularly severe in developing countries, causing problems for economic and social development, inflicting massive casualties, and leading to the diversion of funds from development to emergency relief and recovery. This publication contains a number of background papers prepared for a World Bank conference on disaster risk management, held in Washington in December 2002. The papers discuss a number of case studies and papers which consider disaster risk reduction strategies designed to enable local communities and authorities in developing countries to be better prepared to protect their lives, homes, livelihoods and assets in an emergency situation.
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Actual and new types of disasters are discussed, e.g. due to rapid urbanization or climate change. Impact and preparedness affect several geographic scales of security, environmental and human, including economics. politics, and society. There are several major worldviews. The main concerns are globalization, environment, social vulnerability, and protecting infrastructure. The various methods of balancing costs of risks include privatization, government taxation and globalization. Africa often suffers export losses, which leads to tens of thousands of youth mortalities, when other countries have disasters. Hazard reduction involves robust design, flexible and adaptable systems, reversal of vulnerability trends, and societal preparedness. Coastal zone classifications include protect, retreat and accommodate. Resilience measures how much disturbance can be absorbed, and the capability for self-reorganization. Regional analysis, management and action are required for flooding. Study approaches include scenarios and consequences. The fact that life support networks, e.g. utilities, affect eachother as external technological causes has not been taken into account traditionally. Critical infrastructure includes telecom, power, energy, storage, transportation, water, financial, emergency services, and government. Buildings can be retrofit using new tech for earthquakes risk. These were papers for a conference of international financial institutions. There are four parts, twenty chapters, twenty-six authors. They may develop literacy for the terminology. Most chapters have conclusions or recommendations. The web had PDFs and Google books has full content.