Building safer cities: the future of disaster risk

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World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 2003 - Business & Economics - 299 pages
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Vulnerability to disaster impacts is an increasingly important aspect of urban development, and a number of ongoing trends have the potential to cause even more severe and broader disaster impacts, including increased environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change, population growth in cities, and the effects of globalisation. The effects of disasters are particularly severe in developing countries, causing problems for economic and social development, inflicting massive casualties, and leading to the diversion of funds from development to emergency relief and recovery. This publication contains a number of background papers prepared for a World Bank conference on disaster risk management, held in Washington in December 2002. The papers discuss a number of case studies and papers which consider disaster risk reduction strategies designed to enable local communities and authorities in developing countries to be better prepared to protect their lives, homes, livelihoods and assets in an emergency situation.
 

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Actual and new types of disasters are discussed, e.g. due to rapid urbanization or climate change. Impact and preparedness affect several geographic scales of security, environmental and human, including economics. politics, and society. There are several major worldviews. The main concerns are globalization, environment, social vulnerability, and protecting infrastructure. The various methods of balancing costs of risks include privatization, government taxation and globalization. Africa often suffers export losses, which leads to tens of thousands of youth mortalities, when other countries have disasters. Hazard reduction involves robust design, flexible and adaptable systems, reversal of vulnerability trends, and societal preparedness. Coastal zone classifications include protect, retreat and accommodate. Resilience measures how much disturbance can be absorbed, and the capability for self-reorganization. Regional analysis, management and action are required for flooding. Study approaches include scenarios and consequences. The fact that life support networks, e.g. utilities, affect eachother as external technological causes has not been taken into account traditionally. Critical infrastructure includes telecom, power, energy, storage, transportation, water, financial, emergency services, and government. Buildings can be retrofit using new tech for earthquakes risk. These were papers for a conference of international financial institutions. There are four parts, twenty chapters, twenty-six authors. They may develop literacy for the terminology. Most chapters have conclusions or recommendations. The web had PDFs and Google books has full content. 

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Page 109 - In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Page 98 - The eight goals are to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a Global Partnership for Development (UNDP 2003).
Page 109 - Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects, where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest possible cost.
Page 4 - a combination of the probability, or frequency, of occurrence of a defined hazard and the magnitude of the consequences of the occurrence
Page 193 - By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers...
Page 184 - vulnerability' we mean the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a natural hazard.
Page 268 - a global coalition of governments, international organizations, academic institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations dedicated to increasing the safety of vulnerable communities and to reducing the impact of disasters in developing countries" (from the ProVention Website, www.proventionconsortium.org/index.htm; accessed November 5, 2003).
Page 85 - Cohen and Noll (1981) provide an additional rationale for building codes. When a building collapses it may create externalities in the form of economic dislocations and other social costs that are beyond the economic loss suffered by the owners. These may not be taken into account when the owners evaluate the importance of adopting a specific mitigation measure. For example, if a building topples off its foundation after an earthquake, it could break a pipeline and cause a major fire that would damage...
Page 45 - The expected losses (of lives, persons injured, property damaged and economic activity disrupted) due to a particular hazard for a given area and reference period. Based on mathematical calculations, risk is the product of hazard and vulnerability.
Page 120 - Change (IPCC) (1994) Preparing to meet the coastal challenges of the 21st Century.

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A retired librarian and has helped many people with her knowledge of vibrations through numerology.

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