Arsenic in Drinking Water

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National Academies Press, Jun 14, 1999 - Nature - 330 pages
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been considering a more stringent regulation of arsenic in water. A significant reduction in the maximum contaminant level (MCL) could increase compliance costs for water utilities. This book discusses the adequacy of the current EPA MCL for protecting human health in the context of stated EPA policy and provides an unbiased scientific basis for deriving the arsenic standard for drinking water and surface water.

Arsenic in Drinking Water evaluates epidemiological data on the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health effects of arsenic exposure of Taiwanese populations and compares those effects with the effects of arsenic exposure demonstrated in other countriesā€"including the United States.

The book also reviews data on toxicokinetics, metabolism, and mechanism and mode of action of arsenic to ascertain how these data could assist in assessing human health risks from arsenic exposures. This volume recommends specific changes to improve the toxicity analyses and risk characterization. The implications of the changes for EPAā€™s current MCL for arsenic are also described.

 

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Contents

Executive Summary
1
1 Introduction
10
2 The US Environmental Protection Agencys 1988 Risk Assessment for Arsenic
16
3 Chemistry and Analysis of Arsenic Species in Water Food Urine Blood Hair and Nails
27
4 Health Effects of Arsenic
83
5 Disposition of Inorganic Arsenic
150
6 Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure
177
7 Mechanisms of Toxicity
193
8 Variation in Human Sensitivity
229
9 Essentiality and Therapeutic Uses
251
10 Statistical Issues
264
11 Risk Characterization
299
Addendum to Chapter 9 Experimental Conditions for Nutritional Studies with Arsenic
302
Addendum to Chapter 10 Table A101 Internal Cancer Data From Arsenicexposure Studies Conducted Taiwan Region Endemic To
307
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