Principles of Linguistic Change, Cognitive and Cultural Factors
Written by the world-renowned pioneer in the field of modern sociolinguistics, this volume examines the cognitive and cultural factors responsible for linguistic change, tracing the life history of these developments, from triggering events to driving forces and endpoints.
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A Controlled Experiment on Vowel Identiﬁcation
Forks in the Road
Social Evaluation of the Northern Cities Shift
Words Floating on the Surface of Sound Change
The Binding Force in Segmental Phonology
The Diffusion of Language from Place to Place
The Diffusion of Language from Group to Group
African–American age coefﬁcient allophones back upglide back vowels Birmingham boundary Canadian Shift chain shifts change in progress Chapter Chicago coda cognitive consonants constraint correct identiﬁcation deﬁned dialect differentiation displayed distinction distribution divergence effect England factors Figure ﬁnd ﬁndings ﬁrst ﬁve fricatives fronting of uw gender groups inﬂuence ingliding Inland North isogloss Labov Latino lexical diffusion linguistic change listeners low back merger lower major Mid-Atlantic Midland minimal pair misunderstanding monophthongization nasal nonperipheral North American English North/Midland Northern Cities Shift nucleus Orleans pattern Philadelphia phonetic phonological position principles raising of æ reﬂect region responses result short vowels short-a system shows signiﬁcant social class sound change South Southern Shift speakers speciﬁc speech community subsystem syllables Table tense tokens triggering event unrounded variable voiceless Volume Vowel Shift vowel system word context Yankee York City