Inclusion and Democracy

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Oxford University Press, 2002 - Political Science - 304 pages
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Democratic equality entails a principle that everyone whose basic interests are affected by policies should be included in the process of making them. Yet individuals and groups often claim that decision making processes are dominated by only some of the interests and perspectives in thesociety. What are the ideals of inclusion through which such criticisms should be made, and which might guide more inclusive political practice? This book considers that question from the point of view of norms of democratic communication, processes of representation and association, and how widethe scope of political jurisdictions should be. Democratic theorists have not sufficiently attended to the ways processes of debate and decision making often marginalize individuals and groups because the norms of political discussion are biased against some forms of expression. Inclusion and Democracy broadens our understanding ofdemocratic communication by reflecting on the positive political functions of narrative, rhetorically situated appeals, and public protest. It reconstructs concepts of civil society and public sphere as enacting such plural forms of communication among debating citizens in large-scale societies. The book considers issues of the scope of the polity at two levels: global and local. The scope of a polity should extend as wide as the scope of social and economic interactions that raise issues of justice. Today this implies the need for global democratic institutions. At a more local level,processes of residential segregation and the design of municipal jurisdictions often result in the ability for actions in one locale to affect those in other locales without those making the decisions having to include some of those affected in the decision making process. Metropolitan governmentswhich preserve significant local autonomy may therefore be necessary to promote political equality.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
1 Challenges for Democracy
3
2 Deep Democracy
5
3 The Approach of Critical Theory
10
4 Thematizing Inclusion
11
5 Situated Conversation
14
DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE
16
1 Two Models of Democracy
18
3 Anticipating Authorization and Accountability
128
4 Modes of Representation
133
5 Special Representation of Marginalized Groups
141
6 Application of the Argument for Group Representation
148
CIVIL SOCIETY AND ITS LIMITS
154
1 The Idea of Civil Society
157
2 SelfOrganizing Civil Society
164
3 The Public Sphere
167

2 An Ideal Relation between Democracy and Justice
27
3 Ideals of SelfDetermination and SelfDevelopment
31
4 Democratic Theory for Unjust Conditions
33
5 Limitations of Some Interpretations of the Deliberative Model
36
INCLUSIVE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION
52
1 External and Internal Exclusion
53
2 Greeting or Public Acknowledgement
57
3 Affirmative Uses of Rhetoric
63
4 Narrative and Situated Knowledge
70
5 Dangers of Manipulation and Deceit
77
SOCIAL DIFFERENCE AS A POLITICAL RESOURCE
81
1 Critique of a Politics of Difference
83
2 Social Difference is not Identity
87
3 Structural Difference and Inequality
92
4 Social Groups and Personal Identity
99
5 What is and is not Identity Politics
102
6 Communication across Difference in Public Judgement
108
REPRESENTATION AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE
121
1 Participation and Representation
124
2 Representation as Relationship
125
4 The Limits of Civil Society
180
5 Associative Democracy
188
RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND REGIONAL DEMOCRACY
196
1 Residential Racial Segregation
198
2 The Wrongs of Segregation
204
3 Residential Class Segregation
210
4 Critique of an I deal of Integration
216
Differentiated Solidarity
221
6 Local Participation and Regional Governance
228
SELFDETERMINATION AND GLOBAL DEMOCRACY
236
1 The NationState and Obligations of Justice
237
2 Transborder Justice and Global Governance
246
3 Recognition of Distinct Peoples without Nationalism
251
4 Rethinking SelfDetermination
255
5 Global Democracy
265
United Nations Reform
271
References
277
Index
295
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About the author (2002)


Iris Marion Young is Professor of Political Science at The University of Chicago. Her previous books include Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory, Justice and the Politics of Difference, Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy and Policy, and A Companion to Feminist Philosophy.

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