The American response to Canada since 1776
Canadians long have engaged in in-depth, wide-ranging discussions about their nation's relations with the United States. On the other hand, American citizens usually have been satisfied to accept a series of unexamined myths about their country's unchanging, benign partnership with the "neighbor to the north". Although such perceptions of uninterrupted, friendly relations with Canada may dominate American popular opinion, not to mention discussions in many American scholarly and political circles, they should not, according to Stewart, form the bases for long-term U.S. international economic, political, and cultural relations with Canada. Stewart describes and analyzes the evolution of U.S. policymaking and U.S. policy thinking toward Canada, from the tense and confrontational post-Revolutionary years to the signing of the Free Trade Agreement in 1988, to discover if there are any permanent characteristics of American policies and attitudes with respect to Canada. American policymakers were concerned for much of the period before World War II with Canada's role in the British empire, often regarded as threatening, or at least troubling, to developing U.S. hegemony in North America and even, in the late nineteenth century, to U.S. trade across the Pacific. A permanent goal of U.S. policymakers was to disengage Canada from that empire. They also thought that Canada's natural geographic and economic orientation was southward to the U.S., and policymakers were critical of Canadian efforts to construct an east-west economy. The Free Trade Agreement of 1988 which prepared the way for north-south lines of economic force, in this context, had been an objective of U.S. foreign policy since thefounding of the republic in 1776. At the same time, however, these deep-seated U.S. goals were often undermined by domestic lobbies and political factors within the U.S., most evidently during the era of high tariffs from the 1860s to the 1930s when U.S. tariff policies actually encouraged a separate, imperially-backed economic and cultural direction in Canada. When the dramatic shift toward integration in trade, investment, defense and even popular culture began to take hold in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s in the wake of the Depression and World War II, American policymakers viewed themselves as working in harmony with underlying, "natural" converging economic, political and cultural trends recognized and accepted by their Canadian counterparts.
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Tendencies to Bad Neighborhood 17831854
A Second Empire 18541892
Broad Questions of National Policy 18921911
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administration agricultural American officials American policy American response American view annexation Blaine Britain British Empire British North American Canadian government Canadian-American Relations Charles colonies commercial Congress continued countries defense Department Diefenbaker Diplomatic Correspondence Dominion economic Elliot exports force Canada foreign free trade Hickerson Papers Hull Ibid impact imperial important integration issue J.L. Granatstein James Bryce James Monroe John Quincy Adams Keenleyside Kellogg Knox Lakes Lawrence Lester Pearson London Louis McLane Marcy memorandum ment Michigan State University military Moffatt Montreal National Archives natural negotiations North America Ogdensburg Agreement Ottawa Pepper Phillips policy toward Canada political President protectionist Reciprocity Treaty Reel relations with Canada relationship Republican respect to Canada response to Canada Richard Rush Roosevelt route Rush-Bagot Agreement SDDF Secretary Senate tariff territory tion Toronto trade agreement U.S. Consul U.S. Minister United University Press Upper Canada Washington Webster-Ashburton Treaty West William York