## Equity: In Theory and PracticeGovernments and institutions, perhaps even more than markets, determine who gets what in our society. They make the crucial choices about who pays the taxes, who gets into college, which patients get medical care, who gets drafted, where the hazardous waste dump is sited, and how much we pay for public services. Debate about these issues inevitably centers on the question of whether the solution is "fair." In Equity: In Theory and Practice, H. Peyton Young offers a systematic explanation of what we mean by fairness in distributing public resources and burdens, and applies the theory to actual cases. Young begins by reviewing some of the major theories of social justice, showing that none of them explains how societies resolve distributive problems in practice. He then suggests an alternative approach to analyzing fairness in concrete situations: equity, he argues, does not boil down to a single formula, but represents a balance between competing principles of need, desert, and social utility. The case studies Young uses to illustrate his approach include the design of income tax schedules, priority schemes for allocating scarce medical resources, formulas for distributing political representation, and criteria for setting fees for public services. Each represents a unique blend of historical perspective, rigorous analysis, and an emphasis on practical solutions. |

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### Contents

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### Common terms and phrases

acres Alabama paradox allocation criterion allocation problem allocation rule allotted alternative amount assume bargaining problem chapter chooser claimants claims problem common property competitive allocation consider contested garment rule core cost allocation cost function defined distribution divide and choose divisor efficient entitlement envy envy-free equal division equity example fair division formula fraction given heirs Hence Hill's method impartial implies income individuals indivisible inequality integer Jefferson's method kidney lottery Maimonides marginal utility maximizes nucleolus number of seats outcome pair pairwise consistent parties patient payoffs percent players point system population population paradox portion priority method Progressive Taxation proportional quota ranking receive relative result satisfies Shapley value share situations standard of comparison strictly increasing subgroup subset Suppose tax rate tax schedule taxation THEOREM theory tions total number two-state solution types unique utility functions vector vermouth vote voters Webster's method whole number