Essentials of Woodworking: A Textbook for Schools

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Manual Arts Press, 1915 - Wood-working - 190 pages
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Page 145 - OAK. — Wood very variable, usually very heavy and hard, very strong and tough, porous, and of coarse texture; the sapwood whitish, the heart "oak" brown to reddish brown. It shrinks and checks badly, giving trouble in seasoning, but stands well, is durable, and little subject to attacks of insects. Oak is used for many purposes: in shipbuilding, for heavy construction, in common carpentry, in furniture, car, and wagon work, cooperage, turnery, and even in...
Page 140 - Basswood (Tilia americana) (lime tree, American linden, lin, bee tree) : Wood light, soft, stiff but not strong, of fine texture, and white to light brown color. The wood shrinks considerably in drying, works and stands well; it is used in carpentry, in the manufacture of furniture and wooden ware, both turned and carved, in cooperage, for toys, also for paneling of car and carriage bodies. Medium to large sized tree, common in all Northern broadleaved forests ; found throughout the eastern United...
Page 139 - Used like soft pine, but also employed as resonance wood and preferred for paper pulp. Spruces, like pines, form extensive forests; they are more frugal, thrive on thinner soils, and bear more shade, but usually require a more humid climate.
Page 145 - ... oak forests" though they always contain a considerable proportion of other kinds of trees. Three well-marked kinds, white, red, and live oak, are distinguished and kept separate in the market. Of the two principal kinds white oak is the stronger, tougher, less porous, and more durable. Red oak is usually of coarser texture, more porous, often brittle, less durable, and even more troublesome in seasoning than white oak. In carpentry and furniture work red oak brings about the same price at present...
Page 144 - ... figures; not durable in the ground or otherwise exposed. Maple is creamy white, with shades of light brown in the heart; shrinks moderately, seasons, works and stands well, wears smoothly, and takes a fine polish. The wood is used for ceiling, flooring...
Page 141 - ... of brown with red and yellow; very handsome, with satiny luster, equaling cherry. The wood shrinks considerably in drying, works and stands well and takes a good polish, but is not durable if exposed. Birch is used for finishing lumber in building, in the manufacture of furniture, in wood turnery for spools, boxes, wooden shoes, etc., for shoe lasts and pegs, for wagon hubs, ox yokes, etc., also in wood carving. The birches are medium-sized trees, form extensive forests northward, and occur scattered...
Page 141 - Butternut (Juglans cinerea) (white walnut) : Wood very similar to black walnut, but light, quite soft, not strong and of light brown color. Used chiefly for finishing lumber, cabinetwork, and cooperage. Medium-sized tree, largest and most common in the Ohio basin; Maine to Minnesota and southward to Georgia and Alabama. CATALPA.
Page 142 - Wood heavy, hard, strong, very tough; moderately durable in contact with the soil; commonly crossgrained, difficult to split and shape, warps, and checks considerably in drying, but stands well if properly handled. The broad sapwood whitish, heart brown, both with shades of gray and red; on split surface rough; texture coarse to fine; capable of high polish. Elm is used in the construction of cars, wagons, etc., in boat and...
Page 143 - GUM. — This general term refers to two kinds of wood usually distinguished as sweet or red gum, and sour, black, or tupelo gum, the former being a relative of the witch-hazel, the latter belonging to the dogwood family.

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