Contributions to the Bacteriology of the Oyster: The Results of Experiments and Observations Made While Conducting an Investigation Directed and Authorized by the Commissioners of Shell Fisheries of the State of Rhode Island
E.L. Freeman Company, state printers, 1914 - Oysters - 88 pages
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amount of shell Average Temperature bacillus Bacteria in Shell Bacteria Washed bacterial content bacteriological bacterium Based on Shell bile tubes branchial chamber Bureau of Chemistry c.c. dilution C.C. of Oyster cent cilia cleansing cloacal chamber close their shells coli Count coli per cubic coli-like microbes colonies composite sample content of oysters cubic centimeter Date dishes edge five oysters gill chamber hibernation Ic.c inoculated laboratory Liquor and Salt Liquor and Washings mantle method of analysis Methods of Shellfish minutes mucus Narragansett Bay Number in Shell Number of Bacteria Number Washed opened organisms oxygen oyster bodies oyster juice oyster liquor oysters examined pipette plates polluted oysters prodigiosus was isolated Providence River recommended by Standard Red Count Report salt solution Score sea water series of experiments sewage Shell Liquor Shellfish Examination Standard Methods sterile water stomach contents total number typhoid bacilli typhosus valve vigorously one hundred Washed from Oyster Wickford writer
Page 23 - Standard Methods of Water Analysis of the American Public Health Association, as set forth in Standard Methods of Water Analysis (APHA, 1912).
Page 23 - The drill shall be sterilized, and the site of the operation on the shell shall be flamed at least once during the drilling process. Bacterial Counts. Bacterial counts shall be made of a composite sample of each lot obtained by mixing the shell liquor of five oysters. Agar shall be used for the culture medium and in general the procedure shall be in accordance with the method recommended for the examination of water by the Committee on Standard Methods of Water Analysis of the American Public Health...
Page 85 - SIZE OF THE SAMPLE. NECESSARY FOR THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF THE SANITARY QUALITY OF SHELL OYSTERS. BY GEORGE H. SMITH. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. Ill, No. 7, 1913, pp 705-708. 119. SCHMUCKER'S "THE MEANING OF EVOLUTION.
Page 16 - The method of analysis consisted in first cauterizing the mantle over the region of the stomach and then inserting a fine sterilized glass pipette, the pipette was moved about and when sufficient of the contents of the stomach and the juice had risen in the pipette, the latter was removed and its contents transferred to liquified agar, ordinary gelatine or sea-water gelatine and plate cultivations made.
Page 12 - The Distribution of Sewage in the waters of Narragansett Bay, with Especial Reference to the Contamination of the Oyster Beds, App.
Page 18 - ... of the mouth pushed aside; the mouth region was sterilized by passing a hot scalpel over these parts and a portion of the stomach contents was drawn out by means of a fine pipette or platinum loop introduced through the mouth opening. Cultures from the intestines were made in the following 1See page 27.
Page 13 - ... reason for this, however, is quite readily understandable when we consider the number of typhoid bacilli which could be found in the sewage of any town or city in comparison with the number of other organisms found in that same sewage. It would be a case of searching for the proverbial 'Loc. cit. *A Bacteriological study of Oysters, with Special Reference to them as a source of Typhoid Infection,
Page 30 - ... oyster meat were then stirred vigorously with a sterile pipette and an attempt made to remove with the pipette as much mucus as possible from the body of the oyster. Then one cubic centimeter of the solution and dilutions thereof were inoculated into plain agar plates and lactose-peptone-bile in the same manner as in the case of oyster juice. A careful record was kept of the number of cubic centimeters of juice obtained from each oyster and the amount of salt solution used in washing each oyster...
Page 83 - CONCLUSIONS. 1. Oysters of medium sizes, at temperatures between 19° and 28° C., used from 7 to 35 decimilligrams of oxygen per hour per 100 grams of entire weight. The amount varies with the temperature, so far as experiments show, according to simple relationship, so that the curve approximates a straight line.
Page 72 - Unfortunately the experiments could not be continued and so we cannot say whether the apparent cleansing, which appeared on the last two days, especially on the last day, was due to a fortunate selection of oysters or was the indication of a real elimination of the intestinal bacteria. The writer is led to believe that the oysters had just begun to open and so allowed the bacteria to be washed out. The low temperature of the water slowed the metabolic processes of the oyster and so, as food and oxygen...