The Principles of Botany, and of Vegetable Physiology: Translated from the German of D.C. Willdenow, Professor of Natural History and Botany at Berlin
Printed at the University Press; for William Blackwood, 64, South Bridge-Street; and T. Cadell and W. Davies, Strand, London., 1811 - Botany - 544 pages
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according animals annual plants antherae apex appearance bear belong biennial plants body botanists botany bracteae branches bulb called calyx capsule cellular texture character climates cold colour compound flowers consists contains corcle corolla cotyledons covered distinguished divided Ejusd fibres figure filaments Filices fleshy Flora flower and fruit flower-stalk flowers foliola foot-stalk frond Fungi garden genera genus germen grow hairs herbaceous hermaphrodite inner bark insects juice kinds leaf leafets leaves Lichen ligneous likewise Linnaeus margin membrane mosses Musci naked seeds natural observed oxygen pappus peculiar perianth pericarp petals petiole pileus pinnated pistil pistillum pith plantarum plants plates plumule pollen produced racters radicles receptacle resemblance root rostel round shoot shrubs side soil Solanum sometimes species stalk stamens stamina stand stem stigma strobilus structure style substance succulent surface thick tion trees umbel varieties vegetable kingdom vessels
Page 497 - Francis, b. 1741, d. 1805. *Stapeliae Novae; or, a collection of several new species of that genus, discovered in the interior parts of Africa.
Page 53 - ... 20. Spear-shaped (hastatum), when the two pointed lobes of the base are bent outwards. — 21. Ear-shaped (auriculatum), when there are at the base two small round lobes bent outwards. It is nearly the hastate leaf, only the lobes are smaller and round. In respect of circumference. 22. Orbicular (orbiculatum), when the diameter of the leaf on all sides is equal. — 23. Roundish (subrotundum), differs little from the foregoing, only that the diameter is longer, either from the base to the apex...
Page 123 - Lateral (laterale), which is situated on the side of the stylus or of the germen 24. Sitting (sessile), which, when there is no style, rests on the germen. The stigma, properly speaking, consists of a number of inhaling tubercles, which are not always visible without a magnifier. In the Mirabilis jalapa they are to be seen most distinctly.
Page 105 - Wheel-shaped (rotate), when a cylindrical tube is very short, nearly shorter than the calyx, sometimes hardly perceptible, and its margin is quite flat. It is almost the same with the foregoing, only the tube is very short ; as in shepherd's club, Verbascum. 10. Tongue-shaped (ligulata), when the tube is not long, suddenly ceases, and ends in an oblong expansion ; as in the Aristolochia clematitis, and in some flowers that are contained in a common perianthium. 11.
Page 173 - Angiospcrmia when they are contained in a pericarp. Those of the fifteenth class are, like the foregoing, taken from the fruit, with this difference, that here there are no naked seeds but a Siliqua, and the Orders are named according to the size of this, siliculosa and siliquosa. In the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, twentieth, twenty-first and twenty-second classes, the Orders are denominated according to the number of the stamens; in the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 20th.
Page 24 - The stalk (caulis) is herbaceous, seldom woody, and lasts but one or two years ; hence it is proper only to herbaceous plants, however, the term is sometimes applied both to trees and shrubs. The divisions of this are also called branches (rami). The kinds are, In respect of division. 1. Very simple (simplicissimus), that has no branches, nor is its flower-stalk divided, consequently it can have but one flower or spike, and no flowers in the axillse of the branches.
Page 65 - Membranaceous (membianaceum), when both membranes of a leaf lie close upon one another, without any pulpy substance between them ; as in the leaves of most trees and plants. — 116. Fleshy (carnosum), when between the membranes there is much soft and pulpy substance ; as in houseleek, Sempervivum tectorum. — 117. Hollow (tubulosum), when a somewhat fleshy and long leaf, as in the onion, Allium Cepa.
Page 429 - ... weather. Some that are natives of warm climates have become naturalized with us, perhaps because their cellular texture is tougher than that of other plants ; but, on the contrary, there are many, that in this respect are unaccommodating, because their organization will endure no great alternation of heat and cold. But the most useful plants, like the domestic animals, are capable of succeeding in very different climates. If there are some which are confined to certain zones, there are others...
Page 310 - Such phenomena were not unknown to Pliny and Theophrastus. The analogy between animal and vegetable life is still farther demonstrated by the well known fact, that while some creatures, such as the cat and owl, sleep during the day, and continue awake at night, certain plants do the same thing. Such...
Page 423 - Thus to the apparently insignificant mosses, are we indebted almost intirely for the mightiest rivers, and to them moreover do we owe the desiccation of extensive swamps, and the fertility of the most unfruitful soils. The object of nature is not only the maintenance of every plant, but the turning to use even the decaying parts of every vegetable and animal production. The smallest space is destined to be the abode either of a plant, or of an animal. The richest and most barren soil, the dry sand^...