Encyclopedia of White-Collar & Corporate Crime, Volume 1

Front Cover
Lawrence M. Salinger
SAGE, 2005 - Social Science - 974 pages
`General Editor Salinger (Arkansas State Univ.) and his panel of entry writers adopt a broad approach to white-collar crime: their excellent set covers corporate, organizational, governmental, financial, and political crimes, as well as important legislation and laws related to the subject. An impressive title on a neglected field of criminal justice ' - CHOICE

While we can easily name examples of white-collar crime, such as the Enron accounting scandal and the recent trial in the US of Martha Stewart for illegal share trading activities , there is no clear definition of what is meant by the term white-collar crime. The term `White Color Crime' was coined in 1939 by Edwin H Sutherland in a ground-breaking address to the American Sociological Society. Sutherland challenged conventional theories and stereotypes to point out that we needed to look beyond poverty in studying crime, as criminal behavior could also be seen in persons of affluence and high social status.

With more than 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of White-Collar and Corporate Crime attempts to provide an indepth examination of this relatively new social phenomenon. Encompassing historical perspectives, definitions, examples, investigations, prosecutions, assessments, challenges, and projections this forms the definitive reference work on this topic.

The Encyclopedia of White-Collar and Corporate Crime is edited to incorporate information about a variety of white-collar crimes, and provides examples of persons, statutes, companies, and convictions. Each entry offers a thorough and thoughtful summary of the topic. Rather than a simple definition, users are given a satisfying and sophisticated synopsis with references for further study.

Articles consider all aspects of white-collar and corporate crime, including:

Law: describes the specific elements of the laws in terms of what types of legal acts to which they are meant to apply;

Individuals: brief biographical sketches, primarily focused on how they relate to the study of white-collar crime;

Events: criminal events include descriptions of specific cases of white-collar crime, both past and current.

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Encyclopedia of white-collar & corporate crime

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Salinger (Arkansas State) has edited a well-researched and clearly written collection of articles about the types of white collar crime and cites some of the more notorious players. Written by ... Read full review

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About the author (2005)

Lawrence M. Salinger, Ph.D., is associate professor of criminology and sociology at Arkansas State University. He has earned degrees from the University of California, Irvine; Indiana University; and Washington State University. In addition, he attended the Counter-Terrorism Studies Executive Certificate program at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya, Israel. His interest in the study of crime and criminals began at a very early age when, as a first grader, he read "The FBI "(1954) by Quentin Reynolds. Salinger s interests in criminology focus primarily on violent victimization and organizational crime. Organizational crime incorporates three types of criminality: whitecollar and corporate crime, organized crime, and, terrorism. While to the average person these types of crime seem quite diverse, when looked at more closely, they actually have much in common with each other.

For example, all three types of crime revolve around hierarchical organizational structures, with defined roles for each type of actor within the organization. Each type of organization, be it a business, an organized crime family, or a terrorist network, has goals or objectives to strive for, although those goals may be different depending upon the type of organization. All three types of organizational crime involve both legal and illegal behaviors committed by the organizations, with both legal and illegal behaviors funding each other. Finally, all three types of crime impact people s lives in everyday society.

White-collar and corporate crime have been of interest to Salinger since he took his first course on the topic from Dr. John Braithwaite at the University of California, Irvine, in the 1970s, and was fueled by the likes of Drs. Gil Geis, Henry Pontell, Paul Jesilow, James F. Short, Jr., and Robert Meier. Salinger s doctoral dissertation, completed in 1992 at Washington State University, analyzed 98 years of antitrust price-fixing violations. While the findings were less than conclusive, some historical trends were noted. For example, the Sherman Antitrust Act was created to reduce restraint of trade and increase competition in the marketplace. However, during the first decade of its existence, the law was used exclusively to prosecute labor union organizers for strikes again corporations, rather than against crooked corporations themselves.

Another example of historical significance was that price-fixing charges against both U.S. and foreign corporations tended to increase in the two to three years before wars, but were then frozen at the request of the Department of Defense (or its predecessor, the War Department) because the companies were crucial to the war effort. After each war, the Department of Justice would drop charges against the American companies, while fully prosecuting the foreign companies.

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