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at one corner. In like manner the price of the letter was written in figures; thus, 6|; 12£; 18^; or 25; and these rates, if the word "paid" did not appear on the outside, were to be paid by the parties to whom the letters were'addressed. The change then in use was silver coin, of the denominations of 6J cents (fippenny bit); 12i cents (ninepence); 23 cents, and half dollars. Thus, if the price of a letter were 18| cents, you gave the postmaster a ffuarter, and he gave you back a fippenny bit, and so on. Letters were written on three pages of the sheet, the fourth being left blank, and then so folded as to allow the' blank page to form the whole outside of the letter, upon whichthe address was written. There are few persons now living cf forty years and under, who could fold up a letter in the old style. Letters were sealed with sealing wax in the form of wafers, mostly red wax, though black and blue were sometimes used. Wafers put up in small boxes formed a considerable article of commerce, and were for sale at every store and grocery. They are now nowhere to be found. It was customary then for persons to carry seals with which to stamp the wafers which were first softened by moistening them with the tongue. And these seals might be the initials of the name, or any figure fancied. The introduction of letter envelopes took place previous to 1840, and cheap postal stamps about 1848, as my recollection has it.

The growth of Lancaster, from the Lime the first trees were cut down and the first log cabin built, in the year 1800, up to 1876, cannot be minutely and specifically traced, year by year, nor would it be of importance to do so, so far as the present iictors on the stage of life are concerned. The former inhabitants did their work, and passed away. The present will soon be gone, and scarcely remembered. The first settlers are all dead, and there is little of the work of their hands visible— nothing, beyond a few writings, and possibly a few log structures, mostly closed in and hidden from view. The original log structures have every one disappeared, and everything else constructed of wood by the original settlers. One can scarcely find so much as a stone laid, or bearing the impress of first hands. A few moss covered gravestones in the old cemeteries tell where some of the pioneers were laid—tell when born and when died, and that is all. Nobody can tell how they looked, or how they spoke. It is as if they had never lived. What is it to the present surging throng how they lived, and joyed, and sorrowed, and loved, and hated, and suffered, and died? Who feels one stirring emotion for the honored dead? There is not one to weep for them; and not one will weep for us "a hundred years to come." "But other men our streets will fill; and other men our lands will till; a hundred years to come." Thus does man and all his works perish. Could we interview these veteran dead, volumes that is forever lost, that we might have saved, could be placed on paper. But there are none, not one to tell trie story.

Some of their descendants are alive, but they cannot tell the tales of their sires. They could tell us whence they came, where they settled, and when they died, and there the curtain would drop. It cannot be determined now, with few exceptions, where the original settlers built their first cabins, at least not the exact spot; so much has the onward march of time transformed the face of things. All has drifted into the dim and dimming past twilight. It is said, in a general way, that a great many of the first inhabitants were mechanics, but who were they? what branches did they follow? what was their personal appearance? how did they succeed? were they good men and women? and did they live exemplary lives? We can occasionally hear it said, that seventy years ago such a man was a blacksmith in Lancaster, or in Fairfield county, and some one was a shoemaker, and one was a lawyer, and some others kept tavern. Well, they are all gone, and their houses are gone, and everything that belonged to them. Of all these mechanics, and all that did the drudgery and bore the heavy burdens, not one word is written. There are no means of knowing anything about them. Only the few individuals we can say much about; but so far as data can be found, every original settler of Fairfield county will be mentioned.

In a general way it will suffice to say, that Lancaster is one of those inland towns of Ohio whose growth has been slow, persistant and uniform. It has been a matter of some surprise that Lancaster has not become a leading town of the State in manufacturing, possessing as it does local advantages and facilities nowhere surpassed, and seldom equaled by any county seat of Ohio. Why capital has not sought this as a place of investment in preference to other places with fewer facilities, cannot be told, and we make no attempt at explanation. To say it has been a lack of enterprise on the part of the citizens, would scarcely be true. Capital, to a large extent, has not found its way here, and there we leave the matter. .


In 1839, when the writer settled in Lancaster, he was told that it had the strongest bar in the State, so far as legal ability was concerned. Of this there was probably no doubt. At that time Hon. Thomas Ewing was at the zenith of his legal career. There were also residing in the place, John T. Brazee, Hocking H. Hunter, William Irvin, Henry Stanbery, Wm. J. Reece, William Medill and P. Van Trump, with a few of less distinction.


In like manner it was claimed, that at that time Lancaster had the right to boast of a highly eminent board of practicing physicians. Following are the names of the principal men who were practicing in the place at that time: Paul Carpenter, J. M. Bigelow, James White, M. Z. Kreider, Dr. Wait, George Bcerstler, Dr. Saxe, and Thomas 0. Edwards. Of these only two are living, viz.: Paul Carpenter, still remaining in Lancaster, and Dr. Bigelow, at Detroit. I am unable now to give the names of all other physicians then practicing in the county. I can however recall the names of Dr. Ide of Rushville, Dr. Daugherty of Amanda, Dr. Evans of Bremen, Dr. Paul of Royalton, Dr. Minor of Lithopolis, Drs. Helmich and Gohegan of Baltimore, Dr. Brock of New Salem, Dr. Talbert of Jefferson, Dr. Turner of Rushville, and a few others.

The dry goods merchants then doing business in Lancaster, were, Ainsworth and Willock, Reber and Kntz, Myers Fall and Collins, Levi Anderson, Lobenthal and Reindmond, Rochol, Neigh and Culbertson, Samuel F. McCracken and Alfred Fahnastock. There were then two hardware stores; Bope and Weaver, and the proprietors of the other I do not now recall. The tailors were, Isaac Comer, and Smith and Tong. Robert Reed and Joseph Work, Sen., and Joseph Work, Jun., carried on the shoemaking business. There were /

two tin and stove establishments, viz: Connell & Work, Mr. Bliss. Smith & Arney, and Gilbert Devol were in the iron foundry business ; and George Ring was the proprietor of the Woolen Factory at the south end of Broadway. The principal hotels were the Phoenix, now the Talmadge House, the Shaeffer House, and the'Swan Hotel. The Phcenix was kept by G. Steinman; the Shaeffer House by F. A. Shaeffer; and the Swan by Mr. Overhalser. The Shaeffer House has been changed into a business house, the first floor of which is G. Beck's Drug Store. William E. Williams at that time kept a small hotel, known as the Broadway House; and there were two small inns on Columbus street, kept by two men by the name of Myers. In 1839 there were two Drug Stores in Lancaster—one kept by George Kauffman, and the other by Bury & Beck. The former is now continued by Dr. Davidson, and the latter by Beecher White. William Bodenheimer and George W. Claspill were gunsmiths, the former also a manufacturer of spinning-wheels. Mr. Bodenheimer has deceased, and Mr. Claspill has discontinued the business. The canal mill was then in operation, and was owned, I believe, by John T. Brazee and George Kauffman. There were two tan-yards—James M. Pratt owned one of them, and Gideon Peters the other. David Foster was the chair-maker of the place, and is still, in connection with his son, carrying on the business at his old stand at the corner of Wheeling and Columbus streets. Luman Baker and Henry Shultz were cabinetmakers; and Henry Orman and Mr. Vorys were the principal builders. These were the principal industries of Lancaster in 1839, though there were others on a small scale, such as weavers, coopers, and the like, which I cannot take space to particularize. I must not, however, omit to mention Hunter and Edingfield, and Adam and Jacob Guseman, blacksmiths. Groceries and saloons, as such, were almost unknown; groceries were principally sold at the dry goods stores, and drinking was principally done at the taverns. There was not then a shoe and boot-store, or a merchant-tailor in the place; cloth was purchased at the stores, and made to order by the tailors. This was a little less than forty years ago; and when Lancaster is written as it is now, in 1876, the difference will appear.


In 1839, when the writer's acquaintance with the county began, the Hocking Valley canal was the commercial thoroughfare. There were fronting on its eastern bank as it passes along the western border of Lancaster, some nine or ten warehouses, thronged with goods and produce the year round. Through them passed the entire surplus wheat crop of the county, as well as the merchandise for all the stores of Lancaster and the villages of the county. To handle this large amount of freight required a great manj7 clerks and hands. In addition, a great number of teams were in constant demand to bring in the produce from all parts of the county, and to wheel away the merchandise to its destinations. The days of wagoning goods across the mountains in four and six-horse wagons were past, the canal being the Eureka of transportation. The wheat trade alone of Lancaster, at that time, was immense. On a single day, in the month of September, the writer counted one hundred and twenty-five wagons pass down the hill on Main street, freighted with wheat for the mills and warehouses on the canal. This was about the year 1846. The canal was at that time, during most of the navigable months, lined from end to end with boats passing both ways, and freighted with goods and produce, as well as coal from the Hocking mines, which were chiefly developed after the opening of the canal, three or four years before.

Following the same line of history very briefly, we will see what Lancaster is in 1876, thirty-seven years later. The leap is wonderful—so wonderful that if one, after having become familiar with the place and its business in 1839 and 1845, could have clos"ed his eyes and remained oblivious to passing events until the present year, he could find no recognition of either persons or things. In the first place, he would scarcely recognize a building in the place, if the old market-house and the residence of Samuel Rudolph on Wheeling street be excepted. The few remaining citizens he would at last recognize would be so changed as to appear somebody else. More than a full generation have been born and died within the time. He would not hear a song sung he heard then, scarcely a tune. If he should enter a Methodist class-meeting, he would not hear a familiar voice or see a familiar face, and

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