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37 Phil absolute privileged communication accused action for damages action for libel actual malice alleged American Communications Association Article 360 article is printed cause charges civil action clear and present Commission on Elections contempt course of judicial court crime criminal action dangerous tendency rule defamatory imputation defamatory matter defamatory statement defendant defendant-appellee dishonor doctrine of privileged editor EUGENIO LOPEZ express malice fact faith false free speech freedom of expression freedom of speech immunity injury Instance judicial proceedings jurisdiction justifiable motive liable libel law libel or slander libelous article libelous matter libelous publication means ment moral nature newspaper occasion offended party opinion person defamed PHILIPPINES plaintiff plaintiff-appellee pleadings present danger rule presumed proof prosecuted de oficio prove province or city public officer published punished Qualified Privilege reason Republic Act reputation Revised Penal Code Reyes SCRA speech and press supra tion truth uttered written defamation