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Structure of wood
Characteristics of some important commer
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American applied Association average bending birch boards bolt brown building coal-tar coal-tar creosote coating color column commercial white compression connectors construction cypress decay diameter dimension Douglas fir durable eastern Eastern hemlock edge effect face fiber stress finish flooring glue gluing grain green growth ring hardwoods heartwood hemlock hickory illus insulating interior joints joist and plank knots laminations length less linseed oil lumber Manufacturers Maple material modulus moisture content nails northern white Northern white cedar paint parallel penetration perpendicular piece pigment piling plies plywood poles ponderosa pine proportional limit red cedar redwood resistance safe load sapwood seasoning shear shrinkage side Sitka spruce softwoods southern yellow pine species spruce stain standard strength ratio structural surface temperature termites tests thickness timber tion treated treatment trees U. S. Dept usually values veneer western red western red cedar white fir white pine width Wood Preservers zinc chloride