Principles of Political Economy: With Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1909 - Classical school of economics - 1013 pages
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Contents

Of Capital
54
Fundamental Propositions respecting Capital
63
Fallacy respecting Taxation
88
but this seldom if ever occurs
97
On what depends the degree of Productiveness
101
Of Cooperation or the Combination of Labour
116
Of Production on a Large and Production on a Small Scale
132
Of the Law of the Increase of Labour
155
Means and motives to saving on what dependent
163
Of the Law of the Increase of Production from
175
Consequences of the foregoing Laws
189
BOOK II
199
Examination of Communism
208
by contract
218
Should the right of bequest be limited and how?
226
Rights of property in abuses
235
Of Competition and Custom
242
Of Slavery
249
Of Peasant Proprietors
256
Evidence respecting peasant properties in Belgium
271
Continuation of the same subject
283
Nature of the metayer system and its varieties
302
Is its abolition desirable?
315
Means of abolishing Cottier Tenancy
329
Of Wages
343
A legal or customary minimum of wages with a guarantee
361
Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject
373
Of the Differences of Wages in different
385
Of Profits
405
Of Rent
422
Is payment for capital sunk in the soil rent or profit ?
429
BOOK III
435
tainment
442
Of Cost of Production in its relation to Value
451
Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production
457
Of Rent in its relation to Value
469
Summary of the Theory of Value 1 The theory of Value recapitulated in a series of proposi
478
Of the Value of Money as dependent
489
Of the Value of Money as dependent on Cost
499
Of a Double Standard and Subsidiary Coins
507
The Laws of Value how modified in their application
509
Influence of Credit on Prices
523
Effects of great extensions and contractions of credit
529
Are bank notes money?
538
If regulated by the price of bullion an inconvertible
544
Distinction between variations in the exchanges which
617
Influence of the Currency on the Exchanges
629
The rate of interest depends on the demand and supply
637
Chapter XXIV7 Of the Regulation of a Convertible Paper
651
Of the Competition of Different Countries
678
BOOK IV
695
Influence of the Progress of Industry
710
Of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum
725
by improvements in production
735
Of the Stationary State
746
On the Probable Futurity of the Labouring Classes
752
BOOK V
795
Four fundamental rules of taxation
802
Of Direct Taxes
823
An Income Tax
829
Of Taxes on Commodities
837
Taxes on contracts
857
Comparison between Direct and Indirect
864
Practical rules for indirect taxation
870
Of the Ordinary Functions of Government
881
the administration of justice
884
The same subject continued 1 Laws of Inheritance
889
Law and Custom of Primogeniture
891
Entails
894
Law of compulsory equal division of inheritances
896
Laws of Partnership
897
Partnership with limited liability Chartered Companies 899
903
Laws relating to Insolvency
909
Of Interferences of Government grounded on Erroneous Theories 1 Doctrine of Protection to Native Industry
916
Usury Laws
926
Attempts to regulate the prices of commodities
930
Monopolies
932
Laws against Combination of Workmen
933
Restraints on opinion or on its publication
939
Of the Grounds and Limits of the Laisserfaire y or Noninterference Principle 1 Governmental intervention distinguished into authori tative and unau...
941
Objections to government interventionthe compulsory character of the intervention itself or of the levy of funds to support it
942
increase of the power and influence of government
944
increase of the occupations and responsibilities of government
945
superior efficacy of private agency owing to stronger interest in the work
947
importance of cultivating habits of collective action in the people
948
Laisserfaire the general rule
950
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX
981
The later History of Socialism
990
BB The Importation of Food
1000

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Page 121 - One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another ; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is in this manner divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands,...
Page 121 - I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.
Page 432 - Happily, there is nothing in the laws of Value which remains for the present or any future writer to clear up ; the theory of the subject is complete...
Page 745 - But the best state for human nature, is that in which, while no one is poor, no one desires to be richer, nor has any reason to fear being thrust back by the efforts of others to push themselves forward.
Page 798 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person.
Page 948 - Laisser-faire, in short, should be the general practice: every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Page 279 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him a nine years' lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Page 382 - First, the wages of labour vary with the ease or hardship, the cleanliness or dirtiness, the honourableness or dishonourableness of the employment. Thus in most places, take the year round, a journeyman tailor earns less than a journeyman weaver. His work is much easier.
Page 198 - The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society. The rules by which it is determined, are what the opinions and feelings of the ruling portion of the community make them, and are very different in different ages and countries ; and might be still more different, if mankind so chose.
Page 368 - No remedies for low wages have the smallest chance of being efficacious, which do not operate on and through the minds and habits of the people. While these are unaffected, any contrivance, even if successful, for temporarily improving the condition of the very poor, would but let slip the reins by which population was previously curbed ; and could only, therefore, continue to produce its effect, if, by the whip and spur of taxation, • See Thornton on " Over-Population,

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