From Ulster to America: The Scotch-Irish Heritage of American English
Over the last 350 years, Ireland has sent a constant stream of emigrants to North America. Estimates range from 6 to 10 million. Each emigrant spoke English, Irish, or Ulster Scots. Many indeed used two of these tongues. One of the most formative chapters in this fascinating story is the often-overlooked arrival of perhaps 200,000 people from Ulster in the colonial era, specifically in the sixty years before the American Revolution. This book recounts the lasting impact they made on the development of the,English language of the United States from the 18th century to the present day. It documents nearly 400 terms and meanings, each with quotations from both sides of the Atlantic, that were contributed to American English by these 18th-century settlers from Ulster. Drawing on letters they sent back to their homeland and on other archival documents associated with their settlement, including local fiction and poetry, it shows that Ulster emigrants and their children, who settled mainly in the American interior, gave as much to regional American English as any other group from the Old World. Its pages contain many pleasant surprises: readers will find terms both instantly recognisable and unfamiliar. The numerous quotations not only bring alive the speech of earlier days on both sides of the Atlantic but also extend our understanding of the culture, mannerisms and life of those pioneering times and, through the spoken and written word, poignantly link the past with the present.
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1300 Penn Words 1859 Bartlett Americanisms 1880 Patterson Antrim/Down 1891 Simmons Armagh 1899 Green Virginia 1908 Payne Word-list 1923 Lutton Montiaghisms 1930 Shoemaker 1939 Hall Coll 1942 Bangor Words 1953 Traynor Donegal 1974 Fink Bits 1990 Todd Words 2000 Fenton Hamely afore American English Appalachians c1910 Byers Glossary c1955 Montgomery Heard Carolina century cf SND chiefly South citations clabber conj DARE Dictionary DOSt especially Fenton Hamely Tongue Fink Bits Mt Glenmornan Green Virginia Word-Book Heard in Ulster Hence Hiberno-English Hume Rabbin's Ollminick Irish Kephart Our Sthn Middle English milk Montgomery Coll mountain North O'Kane Patterson Antrim/Down Glossary Payne Word-list East Pennsylvania person Pittsburghese Poems poteen prep pron Randolph and Wilson Samuel Thomson Scotch-Irish Scotland Scottish and northern Scottish Gaelic Shoemaker 1300 Penn Simmons Armagh Words South Midland Sthn High talk Traynor Donegal Glossary ULSt White Mrs Murphy Word-list East Alabama