Three Armies in Britain: The Irish Campaign of Richard II and the Usurpation of Henry IV, 1397-1399
This work reexamines the political and military aspects of the Revolution of 1399 that removed Richard II and placed Henry of Lancaster on the English throne. It argues that Henry of Lancaster was not the "all conquering" hero of 1399 but was rather the leader of a coalition of disaffected noblemen who had old scores to settle with Richard II. It also proposes that Richard II was not an incompetent king whose personality disorder(s) and/or tyrannical behavior brought about his fall. Rather, it argues that the king was in no worse a political position in 1399 than in 1387 or even 1381. As on the previous two great crises of the reign, the king forwent a military option of dealing with his opponents and decided to let the issues of 1399 play themselves out on the field of politics. Both in 1381 and 1387 this tactic had proven effective and there was nothing to suggest in 1399 that it would not be so again.
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Richard II and the Irish Question
Henry of Lancaster and his Invasion
Edmund of Langley and the Defense of
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Adam of Usk Albemarle appointment Archbishop Arundel archers August Bennett Berkeley Bishop Bridlington Bristol castle Cheshire Chronicle Chrons claimed contingents Conway Creton Despenser Duchy of Lancaster Duke Edmund Duke of York Edmund of Langley Edward England English esquire events of 1399 Exchequer force Gloucester Henry of Lancaster Henry of Lancaster's Henry's hotspur Ireland Irish ISBN 90 John of Gaunt joined Henry June king retained knights Lancastrian Affinity Lancastrian estates Lancastrian retainers lands letters London Lord lordship March marginal note men-at-arms Michael Bennett military move Neville North Wales North Yorkshire note has sagitarius Oxford parliament Percy family Pontefract principality of Chester probably Protection dated Ralph received retained his services Ricardian Richard II's Richard of Bordeaux Robert royal royalist sagitarius de corona Salisbury Scrope sheriff Sir John Sir Thomas Somerville South Wales steward summer of 1399 Traison troops Walker Waterton Yorkshire