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according alpine alpine climate America appear assimilation atmospheric precipitations belts blossom botanic botanique Botanische branches broad-leaved Bromeliaceae Buitenzorg calcareous soil cauliflory character characteristic chiefly chlorophyll climate coast cold Compositae desert districts dry season edaphic epiphytes Euphorbiaceae evergreen exhibit favourable flora flowers foliage forest formation frequently grasses grassland grow growth halophytes herbaceous herbs humidity humus hygrophilous influence instance intensity Java leaf leaves Leguminosae less lianes light lime littoral lowlands means megathermic Meteorol meters above sea-level moist montane mountains natural North numerous observations occur oecological period Pflanzen photograph physiological Pinus plant-life possess rain rainfall regards region rich roots salt saprophytes savannah Schimper sclerophyllous seeds shoots shrubs sodium chloride South stems steppe stomata substratum summer surface temperate zones temperature terrestrial plants thick transpiration trees tropical rain-forest Ueber usually vegetative season warm whilst Wiesner wind winter woodland woody plants xerophilous Xerophilous structure xerophytes Zeitschr
Page 480 - The encalypti are the most predominant forest trees; the stringy bark often forms whole forests in some mountain districts, but is seldom seen on the plains. The trees of the forests do not appear crowded, and seldom do the branches of a tree reach those of a neighboring tree.
Page 118 - NEPENTHOIDES liquid attracts insects, and the insects numerous insectivorous birds, including the species I have mentioned and many kinds of humming-birds. The flowers are so disposed, with the stamens hanging downwards, that the birds, to get at the pitchers, must brush against them, and thus convey the pollen from one plant to another.
Page 142 - ... seen young myrmecophytes defoliated by Attas, there appears to be little evidence in favor of the suggestion that juvenile ant-plants are less susceptible to the attacks of phytophagous insects than are the adult individuals. In defending the theory of myrmecophily, SCHIMPER placed great emphasis upon the discovery, in the Corcovado near Rio de Janeiro, of a species of Cecropia which is devoid not only of ants, but also of prostomata and Mullerian food bodies. He inferred that this Cecropia possesses...
Page 491 - ... covering the area, has, during the dry season, the same sunburnt yellow character, and is destitute of all green herbage. After the setting in of the rainy season, there is the same magic appearance of the grasses and herbage. In the month of May the rainy season generally commences, which has a magical effect upon the herbage of the plains ; a few heavy showers change the aspect of the dried-up grasses and herbage into a green and beautiful carpet. The rapidity with which especially the annual...
Page 479 - They agree very well also, though belonging to very different families, in a part of their economy, which contributes somewhat to the peculiar character of the Australian forests, — namely, in their leaves, or the parts performing the functions of leaves, being vertical, or presenting their margin, and not the surface, towards the stem, both surfaces having, consequently, the same relation to light. " This economy, which uniformly takes place in the...
Page 491 - Sieb., wattle, Acacia pycnantha. The plains near the coast are of a different character, the soil mostly fertile, extending often to the sea, and constituting a great part of our arable land. The stratum of humus or fertile soil covering these plains occasions also an essential alteration in their vegetation. The grasses consist of more nourishing kinds, viz. : — Poa, Panicum, Festuca, Agrostis, Airia, Andropogon, Cynodon, Stipa, Pennisetum, Bromus, Eriaehne, Anthistiria, Hordeum, &c.
Page 491 - Lehm., growing parasitical of the Casuarinas and Eucalyptus odorata, adorned with their red flowers hanging in the air. The small shrubs of Bursera spinosa are covered with their white flowers, mingled with the red of different shrubby...
Page 494 - Composite, are seen blooming over the plains in all colours ; and every week brings new representatives of floral beauty. But by the middle of November the number of flowering plants already lessens considerably, the annual grasses and other herbaceous plants begin...
Page 482 - Eucalypti ; such tablelands appearing more like a park— the trees standing seemingly at measured distances, single or in small clumps, as if planted by the hands of a landscape gardener.