From Biped to Strider: The Emergence of Modern Human Walking, Running, and Resource Transport

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Jeff Meldrum, Charles E. Hilton
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 2004 - Social Science - 213 pages
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The inspiration for this volume of contributed papers stemmed from conversations between the editors in front of Chuck Hilton's poster on the determinants of hominid walking speed, presented at thel998 meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA). Earlier at those meetings, Jeff Meldrum (with Roshna Wunderlich) had presented an alternate interpretation of the Laetoli footprints based on evidence of midfoot flexibility. As the discussion ensued we found convergence on a number of ideas about the nature of the evolution of modem human walking. From the continuation of that dialogue grew the proposal for a symposium which we called From Biped to Strider: the Emergence of Modem Human Walking. The symposium was held as a session of the 69th annual meeting of the AAPA, held in San Antonio, Texas in 2000. It seemed to us that the study of human bipedalism had become overshadowed by theoften polarized debates over whether australo pithecines were wholly terrestrial in habit, or retained a significant degree of arboreality.
 

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Contents

Striders Runners and Transporters
1
KnuckleWalking and the Origin of Human Bipedalism
9
A New Hypothesis on the Origin of Hominoid Locomotion
35
Functional Interpretation of the Laetoli Footprints
49
Fossilized Hawaiian Footprints Compared with Laetoli Hominid Footprints
63
In What Manner Did They Walk on Two Legs? An Architectural Perspective for the Functional Diagnostics of the Early Hominid Foot
85
The Behavioral Ecology of Locomotion
101
Bipedalism in Homo ergaster An Experimental Study of the Effects of Tibial Proportions on Locomotor Biomechanics
117
The RunningFighting Dichotomy and the Evolution of Aggression in Hominids
135
Age Sex and Resource Transport in Venezuelan Foragers
163
Mobility and the Locomotor Skeleton at the Foraging to Farming Transition
183
Uplifted Head Free Hands and the Evolution of Human Walking
203
Index
211
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Page 204 - Man? Was the oldest Homo sapiens pliocene or miocene, or yet more ancient? In still older strata do the fossilized bones of an Ape more anthropoid, or a Man more pithecoid, than any yet known await the researches of some unborn paleontologist?
Page 204 - As the progenitors of man became more and more erect, with their hands and arms more and more modified for prehension and other purposes, with their feet and legs at the same time transformed for firm support and progression, endless other changes of structure would have become necessary. The pelvis would have to be broadened, the spine peculiarly curved, and the head fixed in an altered position, all which changes have been attained by man.

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