Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning
The tradition of Samkhya is one of the oldest and most influential in the intellectual history of India. The fundamental notions of Samkhya namely prakrti, purusa, buddhi, ahamkara, manas and the three gunas provided the conceptual framework in which much of Indian philosophizing occurred, and the classical formulations of Yoga and Vedanta together with many traditions of Buddhist philosophy and meditation developed vis-a-vis the intellectual perspective of the Samkhya. Similarly on a general cultural level the influence of Samkhya was profound and important over many centuries in such areas as law, medicine, ancient science and mathematics, logic, mythology, cosmology and ritual. This study traces the history of the Samkhya not only in the Indian intellectual tradition, but also in the traditions of historical criticism. The book also offers a new interpretation of the philosophical significance of the Samkhya, with special reference to the classical interpretation of the interaction of prakrti and purusa. In this edition author has also included a Chart of the Twenty-five Basic Principles of the Samkhya, a Glossary of Samkhya Terminology, an additional Appendix which surveys recent scholarly work in the area of Samkhya together with a discussion of Samkhya in the Purana-s and a revised Bibliography.
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A B Keith
E H Johnston
J W Hauer
Renaissance or Later Sāmkhya
AN INTERPRETATION OF THE MEANING OF CLASSICAL
prakſti guņas and satkāryavāda
Association and Interaction of prakſti and puruşa
Discrimination and Release
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according ahamkāra analysis ancient appears attempt avyakta basic becomes Beginnings bhāvas buddhi Buddhism Buitenen called cause century Chapter characterized classical Samkhya commentaries concerning condition consciousness course creation critical described discrimination discussion distinction doctrine dualism early Edgerton edition eight elements emergence emphasizing evolution example existence experience fact final finds five Frauwallner functions Garbe gross guņas Ibid important Indian Indian Philosophy individual interpretation Johnston Kārikā Keith kind knowing knowledge later linga manas manifest manifest world material means mind Mokşadharma Moreover nature noted notion older organs original passages period Philosophy pradhāna prakrti present principles probably problem puruşa reason references reflection regarding release represents respect salvation Sanskrit says sense simply speculations subtle suffering suggest tattvas texts theory thought tion tradition trans translation ultimate Upanişads various verse Yoga
Page 7 - I. Because of the torment of the threefold suffering, (there arises) the desire to know the means of removing it. If (it is said that) this (desire — ie, inquiry) is useless because perceptible (means of removal are available), (we say) no, since (perceptible means) are not final or abiding.