Garum and Salsamenta: Production and Commerce in Materia Medica
Fermented fish products fulfilled multiple functions in Graeco-Roman society. They were a source of nutrition, a medicine with both dietetic and therapeutic value, and a commodity of trade. Their production and commerce provided employment, even wealth, for many individuals in the western and eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. The work defines ancient salt-fish products and clarifies their relationship with modern counterparts. Following discussion of the perceived and actual utility of these products in human and veterinary medicine, the author, employing literary, archaeological, epigraphical, papyrological, and numismatic evidence, provides a province- by-province survey of the areas which produced and exported them. The book closes with a discussion of the social status of those involved in their manufacture and trade, the methods used to market them and their fate in the post- classical period. This study explores an important facet of the Roman economy having continuity with the modern world.
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Salted Fish Products In Ancient Medicine
Production and Commerce
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Africa allec amphorae amphorae found ancient appear Armorica Athen Baelo Baetica basins Black Sea brine cent Chersonesos coast contained Diphilus Douarnenez Dressel Form Edmonds Egypt example Excavations export factories Fermented Fish Products fish processing fish salting fish sauce fisheries flos fourth century a.d. Gades Galen Gallia Galliou garum garum sociorum Gaul Geoponica Greek ibid idem industry inscription Italy label liquamen literary sources mackerel Marcellus Empiricus Martial Mauretania Tingitana medicine Mediterranean merchants muria Ostia papyri passim pictus Pliny Pliny HN Pompeian Pompeii Ponsich and Tarradell Port Vendres preserved fish probably processed fish provinces Punic Punta de l'Arenal refer River Roman Amphorae Roman period Rome salsamenta salted fish products salteries salting activity salting installations salting vats Sanquer second century a.d. Spain Spanish salt-fish Strabo third century a.d. tion Tipasa tituli picti trade tunny Tyritake Umbricius Scaurus vats vessels villa vols wine Xenocrates