Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar
The first comparative grammar of the Semitic languages, by H. Zimmern, was published a hundred years ago and the last original work of this kind was issued in Russian in 1972 by B.M. Grande. The present grammar, designed to come out in the centenary of the completion of Zimmern's work, fills thus a gap. Besides, it is based on both classical and modern Semitic languages, it takes new material of these last decades into account, and situates the Semitic languages in the wider context of Afro-Asiatic. The introduction briefly presents the languages in question. The main parts of the work are devoted to phonology, morphology, and syntax, with elaborate charts and diagrams. Then follows a discussion of fundamental questions related to lexicographical analysis. The study is supplemented by a glossary of linguistic terms used in Semitics, by a selective bibliography, by a general index, and by an index of words and forms. The book is the result of twenty-five years of research and teaching in comparative Semitic grammar.
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c Classical Arabic
Language and Script
Prepalatal and Palatal
F DeterminativeRelative Pronouns
GLOSSARY OF SELECTED LINGUISTIC TERMS
Laryngals Pharyngal and Velar Fricatives
Classification of Semitic Languages
c Assimilation between a Consonant and a Vowel
E The States of the Noun
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added Amharic Amorite ancient appears Arabic Aramaic assimilation Assyrian Assyro-Babylonian attested Babylonian basic called causative century B.C. Classical Arabic clauses colloquials common consonant construct corresponds Cushitic demonstrative derived dialects distinction distinguish dual East Semitic Egyptian element ending especially Ethiopian Ethiopic examples explained express feminine final followed forms function Gafat Ge'ez geminated Gurage Hebrew imperfect indicate later Libyco-Berber mark masc masculine meaning morpheme names Neo-Aramaic nominal North noun numeral object occurs Old Akkadian Old Babylonian original Palaeosyrian parallel particle pattern perfect person Phoenician phonemes plur plural position predicate prefix preposition present preserved probably pronominal pronoun radical result root Sabaic Semitic languages sentence signs similar singular sounds South Arabian spelling stem suffix syllable Syriac texts third Tigre Tigrinya tion Ugaritic usually variant various verb verbal vocalic voiced vowel West writing written