Looking Backward, Moving Forward: Confronting the Armenian Genocide

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Richard G. Hovannisian
Transaction Publishers, 2003 - Political Science - 301 pages
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The decades separating our new century from the Armenian Genocide, the prototype of modern-day nation-killings, have fundamentally changed the political composition of the region. Virtually no Armenians remain on their historic territories in what is today eastern Turkey. The Armenian people have been scattered about the world. And a small independent republic has come to replace the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was all that was left of the homeland as the result of Turkish invasion and Bolshevik collusion in 1920. One element has remained constant. Notwithstanding the eloquent, compelling evidence housed in the United States National Archives and repositories around the world, successive Turkish governments have denied that the predecessor Young Turk regime committed genocide, and, like the Nazis who followed their example, sought aggressively to deflect blame by accusing the victims themselves.

This volume argues that the time has come for Turkey to reassess the propriety of its approach, and to begin the process that will allow it move into a post-genocide era. The work includes Genocide: An Agenda for Action, Gijs M. de Vries; Determinants of the Armenian Genocide, Donald Bloxham; Looking Backward and Forward, Joyce Apsel; The United States Response to the Armenian Genocide, Simon Payaslian; The League of Nations and the Reclamation of Armenian Genocide Survivors, Vahram L. Shemmassian; Raphael Lemkin and the Armenian Genocide, Steven L. Jacobs; Reconstructing Turkish Historiography of the Armenian Massacres and Deaths of 1915, Fatma Müge Göçek; Bitter-Sweet Memories; The Armenian Genocide and International Law, Joe Verhoeven; New Directions in Literary Response to the Armenian Genocide, Rubina Peroomian; Denial and Free Speech, Henry C. Theriau

 

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Contents

Introduction Confronting the Armenian Genocide
1
Genocide An Agenda for Action
9
Determinants of the Armenian Genocide
23
The United States Response to the Armenian Genocide
51
The League of Nations and the Reclamation of Armenian Genocide Survivors
81
BitterSweet Memories The Last Generation of Ottoman Armenians
113
Raphael Lemkin and the Armenian Genocide
125
The Armenian Genocide and International Law
137
Looking Backward and Forward Genocide Studies and Teaching about the Armenian Genocide
181
Reconstructing the Turkish Historiography on the Armenian Massacres and Deaths of 1915
209
Denial and Free Speech The Case of the Armenian Genocide
231
Healing and Reconciliation
263
State and Nation Their Roles after Independence
275
About the Contributors
285
Index
291
Copyright

New Directions in Literary Responses to the Armenian Genocide
157

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Page 10 - Article II sets forth what has become the authoritative definition of genocide under international law, defining genocide as one of five enumerated acts when they are committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such.

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