Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests
This is a study of how and why the Byzantine empire lost many of its most valuable provinces to Islamic conquerors in the seventh century, provinces that included Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Armenia. It investigates conditions on the eve of those conquests, mistakes in Byzantine policy toward the Muslims, the course of the military campaigns, and the problem of local official and civilian collaboration with the Muslims. It also seeks to explain how after some terrible losses the Byzantine government achieved some intellectual rationalization of its disasters and began the complex process of transforming and adapting its fiscal and military institutions and political controls in order to prevent further disintegration.
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The Byzantine Empire in an era of accelerating change
Difficulties in devising defenses for Syria
The first Muslim penetrations of Byzantine territory
Early tests in southern Palestine
the battle of JabiyaYarmuk rec
The brief struggle to save northern Syria and Byzantine
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Ajnadayn al-Sham al-Tabarl Anastasius the Sinaite Anatolia Antioch Arab tribes Arabic sources areas Armenian Azdl Baladhurl battle of Jabiya-Yarmuk Bedrosian Bilad al-Sham Boor Breydy Byzantine armies Byzantine authority Byzantine commanders Byzantine defense Byzantine Empire Byzantine forces Byzantine Mesopotamia Byzantine military Byzantine soldiers Byzantine territory Byzantine troops Byzantion Byzantium Caetani Caliph Chabot Christian Arab Chron Chronicle civilian Constans Constantinople contemporary Damascus Dathin defeat Disputatio early Egypt emperor Eutychius fighting frontier Futuh Gaza Ghassanids Goeje Greek Heraclius Hist historian History Ibn Asakir important Iraq Islamic Jerusalem late Roman lyad Ma'ab Macler Mesopotamia Michael the Syrian military commanders Monophysite Mu'awiya Mu'ta Muhammad Muslim conquests Muslim invasions Muslim sources Muslim traditions negotiations northern Syria numbers Palestine Persians population probably problems raids region reports resistance Sassanian Sayf Sebeos seventh century Shahrbaraz Strategikon strategy Syria Theoph Theophanes Theophylact Simocatta trans truce Umar Vahan victories W. E. Kaegi Wadl'l walled towns warfare Yarmuk