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allotropic allotropic change alloy alloy addition alloy steel alloying elements amount annealing applied atoms austenitic braze braze welded brittle C.C.T. diagram cause cementite chromium columnar completely composition constituents cooling rate copper cracking develop diffusion effect elevated temperature entrapped equi-axial eutectic eutectoid ferrite formation Full fusion welding give gradient grain boundary grain growth heat affected zone heat input heat treatment hydrogen impurities insoluble interface iron latter lattice liquid metal low-alloy steels macrostructure martensite mechanical properties melting temperature metallurgical molten metal nickel nucleation occur oxide parent material parent metal particular pearlite plain-carbon steel planes plastic deformation possible Post-Weld precipitation problem quench hardening rate of heat reaction recrystallisation relatively residual stress resistance room temperature Section segregation shown in Fig shrinkage solid-phase welding solidification solidifying metal solidus solubility stable strength supersaturated surface takes place tend tensile thermal undesirable usually weld deposit weld zone weldability welded joint welding processes weldment