Working Hours and Job Sharing in the EU and USA: Are Europeans Lazy? Or Americans Crazy?
Tito Boeri, Michael C. Burda, Francis Kramarz, Pierre Cahuc
Oxford University Press, 2008 - Business & Economics - 269 pages
In the last 50 years the gap in labour productivity between Europe and the US has narrowed considerably with estimates in 2005 suggesting a EU-US labour productivity gap of about 5 per cent. Yet, average per capita income in the EU is still about 30% lower than in the US. This persistent gap in income per capita can be almost entirely explained by Europeans working less than Americans.
Why do Europeans work so little compared to Americans? What do they do with their spare time outside work? Can they be induced to work more without reducing labour productivity? If so, how? And what is the effect on well-being if policies are created to reward paid work as opposed to other potentially socially valuable activities, like childbearing? More broadly, should the state interfere at all when it comes to bargaining over working hours? This volume explores these questions and many more in an attempt to understand the changing nature of the hours worked in the USA and EU, as well as the effects of policies that impose working hour reductions.
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The Distribution of Total Work in the EU and
Germany the Netherlands the USA and Australia
Explaining the Data
19 other sections not shown
activities aggregate agreement Alesina allocation Americans analysis annual hours average career break career interruptions ceteris paribus changes in standard Chapter childcare collective bargaining competitive compulsory reductions decrease differences duration economic elasticity employees employment effects employment rate equilibrium estimates Europe female Finland forty hours France full-time function gender home production hourly wage hours per week hours reductions household production IG Metall impact implemented income individual industry Italy Kramarz labor costs labor force labor input labor market labor supply labor taxation less minimum wage monopsony negotiated Netherlands Nordic countries number of hours OECD outcomes overtime part-time jobs participation percent perfect competition plants positive market preferences reductions in standard replacement workers shows social norms Solow residual standard hours subsidies surveys Sweden Table tax wedge tertiary thirty-five hours thirty-nine hours unemployed unions utility variables wage compensation weekly welfare western Germany women work-sharing policies working-time reductions workweek reduction