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Active fiber composites for structural health monitoring 399202
cumulative effects of weak electric conduction
Occurrence of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys 399204
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active actuator alloys applied assumed behavior boundary calculated ceramics components composite compressive compressive stress considered constant constitutive corresponding crack crystal curve cycles decrease deformation dependence determined developed devices dielectric direction displacement distribution domain wall drive effective elastic electric field electrodes energy equations experimental experiments fatigue ferroelectric fiber Figure finite element force fraction frequency function given heat hysteresis increase initial internal layer lead length linear loading loop loss martensite material matrix measured mechanical method moduli nonlinear observed obtained orientation parameters performance phase piezoceramic piezoelectric polarization poling potential presented properties ratio reduced relation respectively response sample shape memory shown shows single Smart solid specimen stack strain stress Structures surface switching temperature tensor transformation unit voltage volume yield zero