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Diseases of the Kidneys and Disorders of Body
PART TWO Clinical Evaluation of Renal Function
A Urologic Point of View
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abnormalities acid-base acute renal failure agents aldosterone anion gap artery ascites associated azotemia bladder blood pressure calcium capillary cause chloride chronic renal failure cirrhosis clearance clinical decrease diabetic diagnosis dietary disorders distal diuresis diuretics dose drugs edema effects electrolyte elevated excretion extracellular fluid factors glomerulonephritis glucose hematuria hemodialysis hepatic hormone hypercalcemia hypercalciuria hyperparathyroidism hypertension hypokalemia hyponatremia hypophosphatemia impaired increase insulin intake interstitial nephritis intravenous kidney laboratory lesion loss lupus membrane mEq/L metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis mg/day mg/dl ml/min necrosis nephron nephropathy nephrotic syndrome normal obstruction occur osmolality PCO2 peritoneal dialysis phosphate phosphorus plasma bicarbonate concentration plasma volume potassium pregnancy presence primary protein proteinuria reabsorption red blood cells reduced renal biopsy renal disease renal function respiratory result secondary serum creatinine level severe sodium solute symptoms Table therapy treatment tubular tubules ultrasound urea uremia uric acid urinary tract infection urine usually vitamin