Focusing on the basic principles of mineral formation by organisms, this comprehensive volume explores questions that relate to a wide variety of fields, from biology and biochemistry, to paleontology, geology, and medical research. Preserved fossils are used to date geological deposits and archaeological artifacts. Materials scientists investigate mineralized tissues to determine the design principles used by organisms to form strong materials. Many medical problems are also associated with normal and pathological mineralization. Lowenstam, the pioneer researcher in biomineralization, and Weiner discuss the basic principles of mineral formation by organisms and compare various mineralization processes. Reference tables listing all known cases in which organisms form minerals are included.
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acidic glycoproteins Addadi algae alization amelogenins amino acid amorphous calcium aragonite bacteria biogenic minerals biologically biomineralization bivalve calcite calcite crystals calcium phosphate Cambrian cartilage cells Chapter chitons Cnidaria coccolith collagen collagen fibrils composed contain crystal formation crystal growth crystalline cuticle dahllite dentin deposits diatoms different minerals diffraction electron enamel enamelins enameloid environment extracellular foraminifera form mineralized fossil record framework francolite function gastropods glycoproteins granules Gravity receptor growth lines hydroxyapatite ions isotopic known layer Lowenstam macromolecules magnetite major mature Mechanical support membrane micrographs million years ago mineral phase mineralization processes mineralized hard mineralized tissues minerals formed molecular mollusks morphology nucleation observed occurs oceans opal organic matrix periostracum phosphate mineral phyla phylum plate polysaccharide proteins proteoglycans protoctists Scale bar sea urchin shell silica skeletal skeletons species spicules Statoconia Statocyst Statoliths structure studies substrate sulfate surface Table teeth temperature tooth ultrastructure Vaterite vertebrates vesicles vitro Watabe X-ray
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