Stress proteins: induction and function
All living organisms are exposed to rapidly changing environmental conditions which may lead to external stress. How organisms cope with stress - especially on the molecular level - is explained in Stress Proteins. Cells react to external stress - where the temperature-induced reaction known as "heat shock response" is the best studied example of stress - by activating special genes and subsequently synthesizing stress proteins. Surprisingly, this stress response is not only similar for all types of stress but even the involved stress proteins are virtually identical in all organisms from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, from bacteria to humans. This universality shows that stress proteins are vital for surviving and indicates that these proteins play an essential role in normal cell functions, in cell growth and metabolism. This explains the great interest in stress response research.
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Acad Sci USA actinomycin activity adenovirus amino acid antiviral assembly basal Biochem Biol Chem cell cycle cell line cellular chaperonins Chinese hamster chloroplasts complex cytoplasmic cytosolic Drosophila Ellis EMBO encoding enzyme Escherichia coli eukaryotic expression factor fibroblasts folding function Garaci glucose-regulated GroEL H.capsulatum heat shock genes heat shock proteins heat shock response heat treatment Hemmingsen HSP induction HSP70 promoter human HSP70 gene hydrogen peroxide hyperthermia induced infection inhibition interaction intracellular large subunits levels Lindquist mammalian cells Maresca membrane mitochondrial Mol Cell Biol Morimoto RI morphogenesis mRNA mutations Natl Acad Sci Nature Lond Neupert pathway Pfanner polypeptides precursor proteins Proc Natl Acad prostaglandins protein import protein synthesis regulation ribosomal RNA synthesis role rRNA Rubisco Santoro MG Sendai virus sequences specific stress proteins stress response structure subunit binding protein survival teins temperature thermotolerant cells tion transcription translocation ubiquitin unfolded virus replication vitro yeast phase