The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, C.500-c.700
Annotation In 1865, Wild Bill Hickok killed Dave Tutt in a Missouri public square in the West's first notable "walkdown." One hundred and twenty-nine years later, Bernhard Goetz shot four threatening young men in a New York subway car. Apart from gunfire, what could the two events possibly have incommon? Goetz, writes Richard Maxwell Brown, was acquitted of wrongdoing in the spirit of a uniquely American view of self-defense, a view forged in frontier gunfights like Hickok's. When faced with a deadly threat, we have the right to stand our ground and fight. We have no duty to retreat. No Duty to Retreat offers an engrossing account of how this idea of self-defense emerged, focusing in particular on the gunfights of the frontier and their impact on our legal traditions. The right to stand one's ground, Brown tells us, appeared relatively recently. Under English common law, the threatened party had a legal duty to retreat "to the wall" before fighting back. But from the nineteenth century on, such authorities as Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes rejected this doctrine as unsuited to both the American mind and the age of firearms. Brown sketches the influence of frontierviolence, demonstrating the tremendous impact of the famous gunmen and the prevalence of what he calls "grassroots gunfighters"--unsung men who resorted to their guns at a moment's notice.
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Adomnán Anglo-Saxon Arab archaeological areas Arian army Austrasia Avars barbarian became Bede bishop Britain British Burgundians burial Byzantine canons Cassiodorus centres chapter Charles-Edwards Childebert Chlothar Chlothar II Christian Chronicle church Clovis coinage coins conquest Constantinople Council culture death early medieval East eastern ecclesiastical eighth century emperor established Europe evidence fifth Francia Frankish Franks Fredegar Gaul Germanic Gildas Gothic Goths Gregory of Tours Guntramn Hist historians imperial important Iona Ireland Irish Isidore Islam Italy Jews John of Biclaro Justinian king kingdom kingship land late antique later Latin Leovigild Lombards Mediterranean Merovingian military monastery monastic monks Muslim northern Northumbrian Odovacer organisation Ostrogothic pagan period political Pope post-Roman probably Procopius provinces Ravenna regions reign religious Roman Empire Rome royal rule rulers Saxons settlement seventh century sixth century Slavs sources southern Spain Sueves survived synod territory Theoderic Toledo tradition Uí Néill Visigothic Vita West western