Elements of the Theory and Practice of Chymistry, Volume 2

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A. Millar, and J. Nourse, 1758 - Chemistry
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Page 301 - ... remain after the fermentation but a vapid liquor, sour indeed, but effete. The better to prevent the dissipation of the spirituous parts, it is a proper and usual precaution to close the mouth of the half filled vessel, in which the liquor ferments, with a cover made of oak wood As to the full vessel, it is always left open, that the air may act freely on the liquor it contains; for it is not liable to the same inconveniences, because it ferments very slowly.
Page 300 - ... fresh cuttings of the vine. Then fill up the vessel with the footstalks of grapes, commonly called the rape, to the top of the vessel, which must be left quite open. " Having thus prepared the two vessels, pour into them the wine to be converted into vinegar, so as to fill one of them quite up, and the other but half full.
Page 21 - The following is the beft method for avoiding difappointment and perplexity in making this antimonial glafs. Take any quantity of calx of antimony, made without addition, put it into a good crucible, which fet in a melting furnace ; kindle the fire gradually, and leave the crucible uncovered at the beginning ; a quarter- of an hour after the matter is red-hot, cover the crucible, and excite the fire vigoroufly, till the calx melts, which may be known by dipping into the crucible an iron wire, to...
Page 239 - It will have an acid talle, arifing from a remainder of the acid iupcrfcdtiy combined with oil. This artificial bitumen may be freed from its redundant acid, by wafhing it in feveral waters. Then put it into a glafs retort, and diliill it with a ftrong reverberated fire.
Page 238 - Oil of which it is the vehicle, that part of the mixture, which is left in the retort and grown black, will begin to rife in froth. Then fupprefs your fire at once : flop the diftillation and change your receiver once more. .When the veflels are grown pretty cool, finifh your diftillation with a lamp-heat kept up for twelve or fifteen days, which in all that time will raife but a very little fulphureous fpirir.
Page 301 - ... put into casks, close stopped, and kept in a cool place. A greater or less degree of warmth accelerates or checks this, as well as the spirituous fermentation. In France, it is finished in about fifteen days, during the summer; but if the heat of the air be very great, and exceed 25° Reaum.
Page 239 - Oil obtained by diftilling the natural Bitumens. This Oil alfo will be accompanied with an aqueous acid liquor. In the...
Page 238 - Thefe little points continue to appear and fucceed each other to the end of the operation. Keep up the fame degree of fire, till upon opening the little hole in the ballon you perceive that the vapours, which...
Page 166 - Take salt of tartar, or any other alkali, thoroughly calcined. Heat it in a crucible till it be red, and in that condition throw it into a -hot iron mortar: rub it quickly with a very hot iron pestle; and as soon as it 'is powdered; pour on- 'it, little by little » .nearly an equal quantity of oil of turpentine. The oil will enter into the salt, and unite intimately with it, so as to form a hard paste. Continue rubbing this composition with a pestle, in order to complete the union of the .t;wo substances;...
Page 300 - On the second or third day there will arise, in the half-filled vessel, a fermentative motion, accompanied with u sensible heat, which will gradually increase from day to day. On the contrary, the fermenting motion is almost imperceptible in the full vessel ; and as the two vessels are alternately full and half full, the fermentation is by that means, in some measure, interrupted, and is only renewed every other day in each vessel.

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