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acre Adam Smith aggregate agricultural American amount average Bank of England banks become Bonamy Price bushels capital capitalist cause census cent China coin coinage commodities consumers consumption corn corn laws cost credit money crops cultivation debt demand distribution domestic duty earn economic economists effect employed employer England English enterprise equal Europe exchange exports fact farmer farming foreign France grains greater Hence human importation increase India industry interest invested iron Karl Marx labor labor power land less loss machinery manufactures means millions nature paid payment period persons political economy population production profit-maker protection purchase quantity railroad railways rate of profit rates of wages rent reproductive wealth revenue rise Russia says sell share social society supply tariff things tion trade transportation United Wealth of Nations wheat
Page 556 - But it cannot be expected that individuals should, at their own risk, or rather to their certain loss, introduce a new manufacture, and bear the burden of carrying it on, until the producers have been educated up to the level of those with whom the processes are traditional. A protecting duty, continued for a reasonable time, will sometimes be the least inconvenient mode in which the nation can tax itself for the support of such an experiment.
Page 556 - Were those high duties and prohibitions taken away all at once, cheaper foreign goods of the same kind might be poured so fast into the home market, as to deprive all at once many thousands of our people of their ordinary employment and means of subsistence.
Page 239 - On the first settling of a country in which there is an abundance of rich and fertile land, a very small proportion of which is required to be cultivated for the support of the actual population, or indeed can be cultivated with the capital which the population can command, there will be no rent...
Page 458 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and every other person. (3) Every tax ought to be levied at the time or in the manner in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it.
Page 7 - Political economy, considered as a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator, proposes two distinct objects : first, to provide a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people, or, more properly, to enable them to provide such a revenue or subsistence for themselves ; and secondly, to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue sufficient for the public services. It proposes to enrich both the people and the sovereign.
Page 79 - Labour alone, therefore, never varying in its own value, is alone the ultimate and real standard by which the value of all commodities can at all times and places be estimated and compared.
Page 356 - The substitution of paper in the room of gold and silver money, replaces a very expensive instrument of commerce with one much less costly, and sometimes equally convenient. Circulation comes to be carried on by a new wheel, which it costs less both to erect and to maintain than the old one.
Page 239 - Rent is that portion of the produce of the earth, which is paid to the landlord for the use of the original and indestructible powers of the soil.
Page 42 - Every man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, conveniences, and amusements of human life.
Page 329 - that which passes freely from hand to hand throughout the community in final discharge of debts and full payment for commodities, being accepted equally without reference to the character or credit of the person who offers it and without the intention of the person who receives it to consume it or apply it to any other use than in turn to tender it to others in discharge of debts or payment for commodities.