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accessory notion actual affirmative already angle apodosis applied Aristotle assert belongs categorical judgment characteristics classification coherence colour combination conceived conclusion condition connexion consequence contain copula definite determined disjunctive judgment distinguished elements ellipse equal equation exclusion existence expression fact figure follows formula further genus give given ground group of marks ideas identical inference instance justified kind language lastly law of identity law of thought logical logical value major premiss mathematics matter means merely method modus ponendo tollens nature necessary nexion object observation opposite particular particular judgment perception position possible predicate principle principle of identity problem proof proposition protasis quantity question reality reason regard relation result sense simple species straight line subordination supposed syllogism thing thinkable thought tion triangle true truth universal concept universal predicate universal proposition validity various whole yellow
Page 77 - ... different, is a relation quite impracticable in thought ; by means of this copula, the simple ' is ' of the categorical judgment, two different contents cannot be connected at all ; they must either fall entirely within one another, or they must remain entirely separate, and the impossible judgment, 'S is P,' resolves itself into the three others, ' S is S," P is P,'
Page 15 - ... when it has thus created a number of such substantial entities with their adjuncts, places them in some kind of relation to each other, so as to constitute a system. And, as a result of all these processes, the world of perceptions comes to be conceived as a world in which there are " things as fixed points, which serve to support a number of dependent properties, and are connected together by the changing play of events.
Page 98 - Edition 17, basing itself upon the fundamental principle of hierarchical classification that what is true of the whole is true also of the parts...
Page 9 - ... universal law for the arrangement of a manifold material is to be discovered. Applied logic is concerned with those methods of investigation which obviate these defects. It considers hindrances and the devices by which they may be overcome; and it must therefore sacrifice the love of systematization to considerations of utility and select what the experience of science has so far shown to be important and fruitful.
Page 7 - Only a mind which stood at the centre of this real world, not outside individual things, but penetrating them with its presence, could command such a view of reality as left nothing to look for, and was therefore the perfect image of it in its own being and activity.
Page 173 - ... computation. This method will show us how, by increase or decrease of qualities, an object tends to pass from one class to another; 1 Logic, § 131. and it enables us to fix upon that species as the most perfect example of the type whose essential marks are, at their greatest quantities, in equilibrium. "We always regard as the typical and most expressive examples of each genus those species in which all the marks are at the highest value which the combination prescribed by the genus allows.
Page 295 - But if inquiry were made what the "some metals " are, the answer would certainly be " Metal which is potassium." Hence Aristotle's conclusion simply leaves out some of the information afforded in the premises ; it even leaves us open to interpret the some metals in a wider sense than we are warranted in doing. From these distinct defects of the old...
Page 291 - If the property B be present in one of the productions, either the properties A, C, and D, are all absent, or some one alone of them is absent. And conversely, if they are all absent it may be concluded that the property A is present (7). 2nd. If A and C are both present or both absent, D will be absent, quite independently of the presence or absence of B (8) and (9).
Page 72 - ... expressions of this sort one after another, he does not indeed deliberately say that the indefinite pronoun means the same in all these cases. But he would certainly, if he understood himself rightly, give this answer rather than the former. This ' It ' is, in fact, thought of as the common subject ...it indicates the all-embracing thought of reality, which takes now one shape, now another2." Sigwart regards this interpretation as too 'artificial*,' though it does not seem in the end to differ...
Page 7 - But the human mind, with which alone we are here concerned, does not thus stand at the centre of things, but has a modest position somewhere in the extreme ramifications of reality. Compelled, as it is, to collect its knowledge piecemeal by experiences which relate immediately to only a small fragment of the whole, and thence to advance cautiously to the apprehension of what lies beyond its horizon, it has probably to make a number of circuits, which are immaterial to the truth it is seeking, but...