Logic in Reality

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, May 20, 2008 - Philosophy - 362 pages
This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.
 

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Contents

LOGIC IN REALITY LIR AS A FORMAL LOGIC
1
12 THE REAL AND REALITY
6
121 Levels of Reality
7
1211 The Ontological Approach
8
122 Contradiction Counteraction or Countervalence
9
123 The Senses of Reduction
10
DEDUCTION
11
Logical Truth Logical Constants and Logical Consequence
12
627 Actualism and Possibilism
179
Manipulability and Intervention
180
6281 Intervention
182
6282 Some Remarks on SelfOrganization
183
63 CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY
185
632 The Problem of Differential Calculus
186
633 Paracontinuity and Paradiscontinuity
188
634 Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis SIA
189

132 Semantics
16
133 FirstOrder Predicate Logic FOL
19
14 NONCLASSICAL LOGICS
20
1412 Paraconsistent Logic
21
142 ManyValued and Fuzzy Logics
22
143 Modal Logic
24
144 Relevance and Natural Logics
26
1442 Natural Logic
27
145 The Metalogic Imaginary Logic and Empirical Logic of Vasiliyev
28
PROBABILITY
30
151 Inference and Abductive Logic
33
16 QUANTUM LOGIC
34
161 The Quantum Formalism of Aerts
35
17 THE FORMAL AXIOMATIZATION OF LIR
36
References
39
LIR AS A FORMAL SYSTEM
41
22 TRUTH VALUES CONTRADICTION AND REALITY VALUES
43
221 Other Theories of Truth
46
222 Verificationism
47
23 IMPLICATION BETWEEN THE LIMITS
49
231 The Transfinite
50
232 Orthodeductions
52
233 ParaDeductions
53
Logical Necessity
54
24 CONJUNCTION AND DISJUNCTION
56
241 A Classification Table for Connectives
58
242 The Calculus of Events and Relations
60
LIR AS A FORMAL ONTOLOGY
63
DUALITY
65
LEVELS OF REALITY
66
331 Complexity Versus Levels of Reality
67
35 THREE CRITICAL CONCEPTS
68
352 Processes
69
Relations
72
36 SOME METALOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
73
37 THE LOGIC OF BEING
75
371 Abstract Nonreal Nonexistent and Nonspatiotemporal Objects
78
THE CATEGORIES OF LIR
81
411 Formal and Material Categories
82
42 THE ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CATEGORIES
84
THE FUNDAMENTAL DUALITIES
85
44 THE CATEGORY OF ENERGY
87
441 The Duality of Energy
88
4411 Intensity and Extensity
90
Homogeneity and Heterogeneity
92
4413 Actuality and Potentiality
93
4414 Locality and Globality
95
4415 Energy Is Dual and Antagonistic
96
442 The Fundamental Principle ofLIR
97
45 THE CATEGORY AND SUBCATEGORIES OF DYNAMIC OPPOSITION
99
451 Nonseparability
100
452 Is There a Mathematical Physics of LIR?
102
CHANGE
104
47 THE CATEGORY OF TSTATES
106
471 The Duality of Quantum Spin
108
48 THE CATEGORIES OF SUBJECT OBJECT AND SUBJECTOBJECT
109
SelfReference
112
NEO AND THE CATEGORYAXIOM FIT
113
491 A CheckList of Principal Dynamic Relationships
117
410 THE INTERPRETATION OF LIR
119
THE CORE THESIS OF LIR STRUCTURE AND EXPLANATION
123
51 THE CORE THESIS OF LIR
124
52 A TWOLEVEL FRAMEWORK OF RELATIONAL ANALYSIS
126
521 Mereology
128
522 Inter and Intratheoretic Relationships
129
53 ONTOLOGY AND METAPHYSICS IN PARALLEL
132
54 THE STRUCTURE OF REALITY IN LIR
135
541 The Categorial Structure of Reality in LIR
136
5412 Ontological Links
139
Set Theory
140
543 The Metaphysical Structure of Reality in LIR
142
Gestalt Theory
144
Catastrophe Theory
145
55 WHAT IS AN EXPLANATION?
150
5512 Spontaneity
151
552 The LIR View of Explanation
153
553 Explanation and Metaphysics
155
56 THE ANALYTICSYNTHETIC DISTINCTION IN LIR
156
561 The Inferential Role Description
158
562 The Syntactic Semantic Distinction and Conjunction
160
LIR METAPHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY
163
62 CAUSALITY IN LIR
164
621 The Metaphysics of Causation
167
622 Noncontradictory Causalities in Science and Philosophy
170
623 Finality
171
624 Dispositions and Powers
173
625 Probabilistic Causation
175
626 Possibility Potentiality and Probability
178
64 STATISM AND DYNAMISM
192
65 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM
194
651 A Philosophical Argument
195
Bohmian Determinism
196
66 REALISM AND EXPERIENCE
197
661 Generic Realism
198
662 Scientific Realism
199
663 Structural Realism
201
Scientific Structural Realism SSR
202
665 Semantic Realism
206
67 THE PRINCIPLE OF DYNAMIC OPPOSITION AND LAWS OF NATURE
208
Constitutive and Regulative
209
Linking Physics and Statistics
210
673 Dynamic Opposition as a Law of Nature
211
674 Metaphysical Positions
212
675 Laws of Nature in Use
213
IDEALISM ANDOR CONTRADICTION?
216
69 THE LIR APPROACH TO PHILOSOPHY
219
691 The Philosophy of Mind
224
692 The Naturalization of Phenomenology
225
LIR AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE TIME SPACE AND COSMOLOGY
229
72 THE LIR THEORY OF SPACETIME
231
722 The LIR Categories of Space
233
723 Simultaneity and Succession
234
7231 Synchronic and Diachronic Logic
236
73 SOME ALTERNATIVE VIEWS OF TIME
237
732 Time in Phenomenology
238
74 BEING AND BECOMING IN MODERN PHYSICS
239
741 Tensers Versus Detensers
240
742 Being and Becoming Revisited
241
75 QUANTUM MECHANICS
246
751 Two Complementary Logics of Complementarity
247
752 Relational Quantum Mechanics
252
753 Quantum Physics and Consciousness
253
76 TOWARD A LOGICAL COSMOLOGY
255
761 SpaceTime in General Relativity
256
762 The Dual Role of the Metric Field
257
A Comparison of Dynamics
260
763 Structural Realism and the Metaphysics of Relations
262
764 A Cyclic Model of the Universe
264
EMERGENCE LIVING SYSTEMS AND CLOSURE
269
812 Opposition in the Physics and Chemistry of Living Systems
271
82 THE LIR APPROACH TO EMERGENCE
273
822 Emergence and Dualism Under Attack
274
823 A Peircean Perspective
275
8231 Virtual Logic and Organic Logic
276
83 EMERGENCE IN PERSPECTIVE
277
831 Physical Emergence
282
833 Catastrophe Theory and Emergence
283
84 EXPLAINING EMERGENCE
284
841 Emergence Is a Dogmatic Concept?
285
842 The Emmeche Synthesis
286
843 Biosemiotics
289
844 Quantum Morphogenesis
290
845 Half of the Story
291
85 CLOSURE IN LIVING SYSTEMS
292
852 The Category of Closure
293
853 Opening Up Closure
294
86 DOWNWARD CAUSATION
295
862 Synchronic Reflexive Downward Causation
296
87 EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE
299
871 The Absence of Logic in Biological Science
300
872 Natural Selection
301
873 The Epistemic Cut
302
The MatterSymbol Problem
305
Bridging the Epistemic Cut
306
876 A Systems Picture
308
877 Evolution as ContextDriven Actualization of Potential
310
8771 ExclusionDriven Potentialities
312
88 THE THERMODYNAMIC AND CYBERNETIC STANDPOINTS
313
881 Thermodynamics and Complexity
314
882 Cybernetics and Information
315
883 Teleonomy
318
NEW DIRECTIONS AND A NEW SKEPTICISM
323
1 NEW DIRECTIONS
325
2 A NEW SKEPTICISM
327
CLASSES AND SETS THE AXIOM OF CHOICE1
331
2 THE AXIOM OF CHOICE
334
THE SYSTEMS VIEWPOINT
337
12 The Relation of Contradiction
338
13 The Principle of Antagonism Applied to Energy
339
2 CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS THEORY
340
22 General Systems Theory
341
23 The Neuchâtel Model
343
24 Systems Science and Complex Systems
345
INDEX
347
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About the author (2008)

Joseph E. Brenner was born in Paris in 1934, the son of the American sculptor Michael Brenner (Lithuania, 1885 – New York, 1969). After primary and secondary education in New York, he received B.A. and M.S. degrees from the University of Chicago. In 1958, he earned a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, which was followed by post-doctoral studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1960, he joined the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Company at its Wilmington, Delaware laboratory as a polymer chemist. From 1965 to his retirement in 1994, he was involved in corporate development and technology transfer with Du Pont de Nemours International in Geneva, Switzerland, working primarily in the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe. In 1998, he began collaboration with Basarab Nicolescu, Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Paris VI and President of the International Center for Transdisciplinary Research (CIRET) in Paris. The focus of this on-going collaboration has been to make the logical system of the Franco-Romanian thinker Stéphane Lupasco (Bucharest, 1900 – Paris, 1988) accessible to English-language readers. Brenner’s extension and up-dating of this work has been the subject of publications and presentations at conferences and seminars in Europe, Brazil and the U.S.A. Dr. Brenner is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the New York Academy of Sciences; and the Swiss Society for Logic and the Philosophy of Science.

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