Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums, Page 3
Roger G. Noll, Andrew S. Zimbalist
Brookings Institution Press, 1997 - Business & Economics - 525 pages
This book examines the economic impact of new stadiums or a sports franchise on the local economy. It explores such general issues as the appropriate method for measuring economic benefits and costs, the source of the bargaining power of teams in obtaining subsidies from local government, the local politics of attracting and retaining teams, the relationship between sports and local employment, and the importance of stadium design in influencing the economic effects of a facility. The book also contains case studies of major league sports facilities in Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Indianapolis, San Francisco, and the Twin Cities and of minor league baseball stadiums and spring training facilities. The primary conclusions are the sports teams and stadiums are not a source of local economic growth and employment; the size of the net subsidy exceeds the financial benefit of a new stadium; and cities are probably willing to subsidize sports teams because of the intense popularity of sports among a substantial proportion of voters and businesses and the leverage that teams enjoy from the monopoly position of professional sports leagues.
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Thank you for making this available. One more unsighted source as to the adaptation and integrity to Candlestick Park as a Public Park and America's 1st Concrete Rebar Multipurpose stadia. Points the light at how to use a stadium and manage them.
The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Facilities
The Employment Effect of Teams and Sports Facilities
Subsidizing Stadiums Who Benefits Who Pays?
Direct Democracy and the Stadium Mess
Stadiums and Urban Space
Stadiums and Major League Sports The Twin Cities
Baltimores Camden Yards Ballparks
Bearing Down in Chicago Location Location Location
Clevelands Gateway to the Future
Stickball in San Francisco
Minor League Teams and Communities
Sports Jobs and Taxes The Real Connection
Sports Politics and Economics The Cincinnati Story