Comparative Biogeography: Discovering and Classifying Biogeographical Patterns of a Dynamic Earth
To unravel the complex shared history of the Earth and its life forms, biogeographers analyze patterns of biodiversity, species distribution, and geological history. So far, the field of biogeography has been fragmented into divergent systematic and evolutionary approaches, with no overarching or unifying research theme or method. In this text, Lynne Parenti and Malte Ebach address this discord and outline comparative tools to unify biogeography. Rooted in phylogenetic systematics, this comparative biogeographic approach offers a comprehensive empirical framework for discovering and deciphering the patterns and processes of the distribution of life on Earth. The authors cover biogeography from its fundamental ideas to the most effective ways to implement them. Real-life examples illustrate concepts and problems, including the first comparative biogeographical analysis of the Indo-West Pacific, an introduction to biogeographical concepts rooted in the earth sciences, and the integration of phylogeny, evolution and earth history.
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HISTORY AND HOMOLOGY
2 History and Development of Comparitive Biogeography
Endemic Areas and Areas of Endemism
Biotic Areas and Area Homology
5 Biogeogrpahic Processes
6 Biogeographic Methods and Applications
7 The Systematic Biogeographic Method
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Africa ancestral area area classiﬁcation area homologs area relationships areagram areagrams and TACs areas of endemism artiﬁcial assumptions AU5 AU5 AU5 Australia biogeographic biogeographic analysis Biogeographic maps biogeographic methods biogeographic patterns biological biota biotic areas Candolle center of origin Chapter cichlids clades cladistic cladogram comparative biogeography components conﬂict contain Croizat Cyprinodontiformes deﬁned deﬁnition discover distribution patterns Earth history Ebach ecological endemic areas evolutionary explain explanatory extinction ﬁeld Figure ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬁshes fossil geographic paralogy geographical congruence geological global Gondwana habitat Halobates hierarchical hypotheses identiﬁed includes Indo-West Paciﬁc inferred interpreted islands lineage Madagascar marine MASTs mechanisms minimal tree molecular monophyletic monophyly natural nodes organisms overlap Paciﬁc Paciﬁc Ocean panbiogeography paralogy-free subtree paraphyletic Parenti parsimony phylogenetic tree plate tectonics Platnick polytomies proposed reﬂect regions rock Rosen sediment South America species subtree analysis Sulu Sea systematic biogeography taxic taxon taxonomic terrane three-item water-striders