The Synaptic Organization of the Brain
Gordon M. Shepherd M.D.
Oxford University Press, Nov 6, 2003 - Medical - 736 pages
It is widely recognized that the neural basis of brain function can be fully understood only by integrating many disciplines at many levels. Studies of synaptic organization are bringing about a quiet revolution in achieving this goal, as documented by this unique book over the past 30 years. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Molecular biologists interested in functional genomics and proteomics of the brain will find answers here to the critical questions: what are the cell and circuit functions of gene products? Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods. Leading experts in the best understood brain regions bring together the molecular, anatomical, functional, and behavioral data in authoritative integrated accounts. The chapters are organized in the same format, covering the neural elements, synaptic connections, basic circuits, physiology, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, membrane properties, dendritic properties, and with a final section on how the circuits mediate specific behaviors. The uniform framework for each chapter enables the authors to higlight the principles that are common to all regions, as well as the adaptations unique to each, thus serving as a model for understanding the neural basis of behavior.
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action potential activity afferents amacrine cells amplitude ANFs arbor axons basal bipolar cells boutons Brain Res burst calcium cell bodies cell dendrites cell types cerebellar channels Chap cholinergic circuits climbing fiber cochlear nucleus collaterals Comp conductance cone connections cortical areas dendritic tree depolarization distal dopaminergic dorsal electrotonic EPSPs excitation excitatory firing functional GABA GABAB receptors GABAergic ganglion cell glomeruli glutamate Golgi granule cells Haberly hippocampus hyperpolarization inactivation inhibition inhibitory innervate interneurons intracellular IPSPs lateral geniculate nucleus Lond mediated membrane potential metabotropic mitral cells modulation mossy fibers motoneurons motor neocortex neostriatum Neurophysiol Neurosci neurotransmitter odor olfactory bulb organization output parallel fibers pathway patterns Physiol piriform cortex postsynaptic presynaptic properties Purkinje cell pyramidal cells pyramidal neurons regions relay cells release response retina sensory soma spike spiny neurons stimulation studies synaptic input terminals thalamic threshold tion transmitter ventral visual cortex voltage