Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 1, 1980 - Science - 298 pages
The purpose of this monograph is to review the known physical aspects of two unusual forms of atmospheric luminous phenomena, to deduce their characteristics and properties, and to promote efforts to improve their understanding. These two forms, called ball lightning and bead lightning, have visual images that differ from the linear image associated with normallightning. The terms "balliightning" and "bead lightning" are used to denote atmospheric luminous forms which are occasionally observed and have the geometrie shape suggested by their name. Vet, it is possible that neither phenomenon may in fact be a form of lightning in the sense of a continuous electrical discharge. Bead lightning has been described as the residue of a cloud-to cloud or cloud-to-ground lightning stroke and has the appearance of aseries of luminous balls separated by dark regions, thus resembling astring of pearls, and remains visible for about one second. Ball lightning has been described as a single luminous globe appearing ne ar the ground after a lightning stroke and also remaining visible for about one second. Both phenomena remain visible far longer than normal lightning flashes.
 

Contents

Introduction
1
12 Existence of Bead Lightning and Ball Lightning
3
Bead Lightning
11
22 Bead Lightning Photographs
12
23 Bead Lightning Origins
28
Ball Lightning
33
32 Observed Properties
35
Deduced Characteristics of Ball Lightning
45
Stationary Image
105
Uninterrupted Singular Trace
109
Natural Discharges
118
Artificial Phenomena
122
53 Unavailable Photographs
130
Skepticism
133
62 Optical Illusions
136
63 Perceptual Effects
138

42 Energy Density
46
43 Energy Interpretations
64
44 Temperature
70
45 Radiation
73
46 Magnetic Field
75
47 Inferences
76
Ball Lightning Photographs
79
52 Classes of Photographs
80
Multiple Path
85
Lightning Channel Decay
91
Pyrotechnic Appearance
100
64 Summary and Erroneous Identifications
139
Laboratory Ball Lightning
147
Use of Natural Lightning
149
Gaseous Electrical Discharge
157
Metallic Vapor
176
Electrodeless Discharges
180
76 Summary and Reflections
194
Bibliography
203
82 Ball Lightning Bead Lightning and Related References
204
Index
293
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