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Introduction By R R Heikes and R W Ure Jr
Classical and Irreversible Thermodynamic Treatment of Ther
Theoretical Calculation of Device Performance By R W Ure
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alloy assumed atoms calculated carrier concentration charge carriers Chem coefﬁcient coefficient of performance cold junction compounds conduction band constant contact resistance couple crystal decrease defects deﬁned density determined device diffusion dislocation donor doping effective mass efficiency electric ﬁeld electrical conductivity electrical resistivity electrons energy gap equation Fermi energy Fermi level ﬁgure of merit ﬁnds ﬁrst ﬂux freezing function germanium given by Eq growth heat ﬂow high temperatures hole increase interface ionized impurity scattering ions lattice thermal conductivity layer liquid maximum measured melting metal method mixed valence mobility n-type obtained oxides oxygen parameter particle PbTe Peltier phase diagram phonon Phys potential produced properties radiation result sample Seebeck coefficient semiconductors shown in Fig signiﬁcant solid solute specimen stoichiometry surface temperature dependence temperature difference temperature gradient theory thermal conductivity thermocouple thermoelectric materials tion vacancies valence band velocity voltage zero