Enlightenment contested: philosophy, modernity, and the emancipation of man, 1670-1752
The first major reassessment of the Western Enlightenment for a generation. Continuing the story he began in Radical Enlightenment, Jonathan Israel now focuses on the first half of the eighteenth century. He traces to their roots the core principles of Western modernity: the primacy of reason, democracy, racial equality, feminism, religious toleration, sexual emancipation, and freedom of expression.
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1 Early Enlightenment Revolution and the Modern Age
Philosophy and the Making of Modernity
Bayle versus the Rationaux
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Amsterdam ancient argument Arminian atheistic authority Averroes basic Bayle's Beaumelle believed Bernard Boulainvilliers Boureau-Deslandes Buddeus Cartesianism Catholic CEuvres Chinese Christian church claims clandestine Clerc conception Counter-Enlightenment criticism critique cultural d'Alembert d'Argens Deism Deists Descartes Dictionnaire Diderot divine doctrine Doria Dutch Dutch Republic Early Enlightenment ecclesiastical Ehrard eighteenth century Enden English equality especially faith fideism Fontenelle France freedom French German Glorious Revolution Greek Gundling Hence Hobbes Holland Huguenot human Hume Ibid ideas intellectual Israel Jansenist Jesuit L'Esprit later laws Leibniz Lettres liberty Locke Locke's Malebranche Mandeville Marsais materialist Meslier Mettrie mind miracles moderate mainstream modern monarchy Montesquieu moral Morelly nature Newton Newtonian philosophical Pierre Bayle political principle Radical Enlightenment Radicati rational rationaux reason Reformed rejected religion religious Republic republican Revolution social society Socinianism Spinoza Spinozist Stoic Stoicism superstition theology thinkers Thomasius thought tion Toland toleration tradition true universal Vico Voltaire Voltaire's wholly Xenophanes