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A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy: With Their Applications
William Nicholson,Andrew Ure
No preview available - 2015
A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy, with Their Applications
No preview available - 2015
acetic acetic acid acid gas alcohol alkali alumina ammonia antimony arsenic arsenic acid atoms azote baryta becomes Berzelius bodies boiling carbonic acid charcoal chemical chlorine coal cold colour combination combustion compound condensation consists contains cooling copper crystals cubic cyanogen decomposed decomposition dilute dissolves distillation earth electricity ether evaporation experiments flame fluid fused gaseous gases Gay Lussac glass grains heat hydrogen ignited inches insoluble lime liquid Lussac lustre magnesia matter melts mercury metal mineral mixed mixture muriatic acid nitrate nitric acid nitrous obtained oxalic oxide oxide of iron oxygen particles phosphate phosphorus portion potash precipitate prime equivalent prisms produced proportion pure quantity resin retort salt saturated silica silver Sir H smell soda solid soluble solution specific gravity strontia substance sulphate sulphuric acid surface taste temperature tion tube vapour vegetable vessel volatile volume weight wire yellow zinc
Page 254 - Temperature may be conceived to depend upon the velocities of the vibrations ; increase of capacity, on the motion being performed in greater space ; and the diminution of temperature, during the conversion of solids into fluids or gases, may be explained on the idea of the loss of vibratory motion, in consequence of the revolution of particles round their axes, at the moment when the body becomes liquid or aeriform ; or from the loss of rapidity of vibration, in consequence of the motion of the...
Page 254 - ... and elastic fluids, besides the vibratory motion, which must be conceived greatest in the last, the particles have a motion round their own axes, with different velocities, the particles of elastic fluids moving with the greatest quickness; and that in ethereal substances, the particles move round their own axes, and separate from each other, penetrating in right lines through space.
Page 422 - When pieces of charcoal about an inch long and onesixth of an inch in diameter, were brought near each other (within the thirtieth or fortieth part of an inch) a bright spark was produced, and more than half the volume of the charcoal became ignited to whiteness, and by withdrawing the points from each other a constant discharge took place through the heated air, in a space equal at least to four inches, producing a most brilliant ascending arch of light, broad, and conical in form in the middle.
Page 366 - I. show that the luminous appearances of shooting stars and meteors cannot be owing to any inflammation of elastic fluids, but must depend upon the ignition of solid bodies. Dr. Halley calculated the height of a meteor at ninety miles, and the great American meteor, which threw down showers of stones, was estimated at seventeen miles high. The velocity of motion of these bodies must in all cases be immensely great, and the heat produced by the compression of the most rarefied air from the velocity...
Page 422 - When any substance was introduced into this arch, it instantly became ignited ; platina melted as readily in it as wax in the flame of a common candle ; quartz, the sapphire, magnesia, lime, all entered into fusion...
Page 501 - The traces of revolutions become still more apparent and decisive when we ascend a little higher, and approach nearer to the foot of the great chains of mountains. There are still found many beds of shells ; some of these are even larger and more solid ; the shells are quite as numerous and as entirely preserved ; but they are not of the same species with those which were found in the less elevated regions.
Page 254 - Since all matter may be made to fill a smaller volume by cooling, it is evident that the particles of matter must have space between them, and since every body can communicate the power of expansion to a body of a lower temperature ; that is, can give an expansive motion to its particles, it is a probable inference, that its own particles are possessed of motion : but as there is no change in the position of its parts, as long as its temperature is uniform, the motion, if it...
Page 479 - ... the fingers now moved nimbly, like those of a violin performer; an assistant, who tried to close the fist, found the hand to open forcibly, in spite of his efforts. When the...
Page 369 - Leslie froze a pound and a quarter of water, contained in a hemispherical porous cup. Muriate of lime in ignited porous pieces, may also be employed as an absorbent. Even mouldering trap or whinstone has been used for experimental illustration with success. By the joint operation of radiation and evaporation, from the surface of water, the natives of India are enabled to procure a supply of ice, when the temperature of the air is many degrees above the freezing point.