Civil Society, Religion, and the Nation: Modernization in Intercultural Context : Russia, Japan, Turkey

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Gerrit Steunebrink, Evert van der Zweerde, Wout Cornelissen
Rodopi, 2004 - Philosophy - 328 pages
Japan, Russia, and Turkey are major examples of countries with different ethnic, religious, and cultural background that embarked on the path of modernization without having been colonized by a Western country. In all three cases, national consciousness has played a significant role in this context. The project of Modernity is obviously of European origin, but is it essentially European? Does modernization imply loss of a country's cultural or national identity? If so, what is the "fate" of the modernization process in these cases? The presence of the idea and reality of civil society can be considered a real marker of Modernity in this respect, because it presupposes the development of liberalism, individualism and human rights. But are these compatible with nationalism and with the idea of a national religion?
These questions are the more pressing, as Japan is considered part of the Western world in many respects, and Russia and Turkey are defining their relation to the European Union in different ways. An investigation of these three countries, set off against more general reflections, sheds light on the possibilities or limitations of modernization n a non-European context.
 

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Japan, Russia, and Turkey are major examples of countries with different ethnic, religious, and cultural background that embarked on the path of modernization without having been colonized by a Western country. In all three cases, national consciousness has played a significant role in this context. The project of Modernity is obviously of European origin, but is it essentially European? Does modernization imply loss of a country’s cultural or national identity? If so, what is the "fate" of the modernization process in these cases? The presence of the idea and reality of civil society can be considered a real marker of Modernity in this respect, because it presupposes the development of liberalism, individualism and human rights. But are these compatible with nationalism and with the idea of a national religion?
These questions are the more pressing, as Japan is considered part of the Western world in many respects, and Russia and Turkey are defining their relation to the European Union in different ways. An investigation of these three countries, set off against more general reflections, sheds light on the possibilities or limitations of modernization in a non-European context.
 

Contents

Nation and Nationalism Russia in Search of its National Identity
29
Civil Society Religion and the Nation Reflections on
51
Towards a Revival of the State as an Ideology in Contemporary
73
Hans Oversloot
87
Civil Society in Japans Modernity An Interpretive Overview
101
Maruyama Masao and the Dilemma of the Public Intellectual
117
Religion and National Identity in Contemporary Japan
135
On the Reception
153
The Conflict between State and Religion in Turkey
175
The Triumph
191
The Ruole of Metaphor in
213
Religion Nation and the Public Sphere
243
Nationalism as Political Strategy Contrary to Civil Society
259
But Where Is the State?
273
On the Contributors
293
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Page 17 - claim the public sphere regulated from above against the public authorities themselves, to engage them in a debate over the general rules governing relations in the basically privatized but publicly relevant sphere of commodity exchange and social labor.

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