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acre admixture alder annual aspen attain average Bavarian Alps beech better birch bole branches Britain chestnut classes of soil clearance close canopy conifers considerable coppice crown danger deciduous demands favourable feet foliage forest trees formation fresh Germany germinative girth greater growing-space grown growth in height growth of grass high forest hornbeam humus indigenous larch latter less light and air light-loving lime loamy localities mixed forests moisture mountain natural reproduction parent standards patches period of rotation planting pole-forest poplars production protection pure forests remunerative reproductive power root-system roots ruling species sandy soils Scotland Scots pine seed seedlings self-sown sessile oak shade shade-bearing shoots silver fir soil and situation soil-moisture sowing species of forest spruce stage of growth stems stool subordinate species sweet chestnut sycamore sylvicultural takes place tap-root thinnings thrive timber tracts transplants underplanting uplands usually weeds Weymouth whilst willows woodlands woods yield
Page x - One chief hindrance to our woodlands being remunerative may be stated at once, — we are arboriculturists and sportsmen, not foresters. A large proportion of the land, returned as woodland, is really pleasure-ground and game-cover. Thousands of landowners follow, on a smaller scale, the example set by the State on a larger in the New Forest and Windsor Forest.
Page vii - Truly, the waste and destruction of our woods has been so universal, that I conceive nothing less than an universal plantation of all sorts of trees will supply, and will encounter the defect ; and therefore I shall here adventure to speak something in general of them all ; though I chiefly insist upon the propagation of such only as seem to be the most wanting and serviceable to the end proposed.
Page 155 - After timber trees,' this author observes, 'the beech deserves our notice. Some, indeed, rank the beech among timber trees; but, I believe, in general it does not find that respect, as its wood is of a soft, spongy nature, sappy and alluring to the worm.
Page 223 - The alder is found in moist situations throughout nearly the whole of Europe from Asia Minor and the Caucasus up to the 62° of latitude on the average ; it is also indigenous to Siberia, to Japan, and to Algiers. In Norway it ascends to 1,080 feet above the sea-level, in the Harz mountains to...
Page 156 - Prussian sea-coast, thence across eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and the Crimea, towards the Caucasus. It is essentially a tree belonging to the hilly and the lower mountainous tracts of central and south Germany, and northwestern Austria, but it also forms pure forests on the plains within the Baltic region, in upper Silesia, and in that portion of Alsace drained by the Rhine.