Surfacing Up: Psychiatry and Social Order in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1908-1968
Focusing on the history of the Ingutsheni Lunatic Asylum (renamed a mental hospital after 1933), situated near Bulawayo in the former Southern Rhodesia, Surfacing Up explores the social, cultural, and political history of the colony that became Zimbabwe after gaining its independence in 1980. The phrase "surfacing up" was drawn from a conversation Lynette A. Jackson had with a psychiatric nurse who used the concept to explain what brought African potential patients into the psychiatric system. Jackson uses Ingutsheni as a reference point for the struggle to "domesticate" Africa and its citizens after conquest. Drawing on the work of Frantz Fanon, Jackson maintains that the asylum in Southern Rhodesia played a significant role in maintaining the colonial social order. She supports Fanon's claim that colonial psychiatric hospitals were repositories for those of "indocile nature" or for those who failed to fit "the social background of the colonial type."Through reconstruction and reinterpretation of patient narratives, Jackson shows how patients were diagnosed, detained, and deemed recovered. She draws on psychiatric case files to analyze the changing economic, social, and environmental conditions of the colonized, the varying needs of the white settlers, and the shifting boundaries between these two communities. She seeks to extend and enrich our understanding of how a significant institution changed the way citizens and subjects experienced the colonial social order.
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1942 Commission According admissions admitted to Ingutsheni African female African male African patients African women became behavior biomedical British Bulawayo Bulawayo Chronicle Central chapter Charles van Onselen Chibaro Chief Native Commissioner clinical colo colonial authorities colonial order colonial Zimbabwe colony's cultural David Dawson described diagnosed disease domestication economic European women files Fleming Frantz Fanon Harare healing Hlomani Ibid Ingut Ingutsheni Mental Hospital inmates insane institution labor Lobengula MacKenzie madness Mark Nyathi Matombi Matthew Medical Director mental health Mental Hospital mental illness Michael Gelfand Michel Foucault migrant mission nanga Ndebele nial nurses Nyasaland Onselen pellagra Phimister police population prison psychiatric hospital Public Health Report Rodger role Salisbury sangoma schizophrenia settler sexual sheni Shona social order South Africa Southern Rhodesia space spatial staff suffering superintendent suspected syphilis therapeutic tion traditional healers treatment Ushewokunze wards Western white male white supremacy Winnie witchcraft woman Zwimba Zwiripi