Egyptian Phyles in the Old Kingdom: The Evolution of a System of Social Organization, Issue 48
Groups of part-time workers called "phyles" served in mortuary cults and work crews during the Old Kingdom in Egypt. This study clarifies their attributes and functioning in these and other institutions, based on the integration of textual and archaeological evidence from the Old Kingdom and the Archaic period preceding it. The arguments suggest that phyles originated in an upper Egyptian social organization dated to the predynastic period, and that they played a more important role than is generally realized in the stability of the early Egyptian state.
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THE NAMES OF THE PHYLES
PHYLES AND SHIPSWATCHES
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Abu Sir Papyri Abydos agyptischen Archaic period Archives attested blocks boat Borchardt Cairo Category Cenival circumcision Coffin Texts column context crews discussed Edel Egypt Egyptian evidence examples Fifth Dynasty five phyles Fourth Dynasty gang name Giza Helck hieroglyphs hmw-ntr hntjw-s Horus hwt p-Hr-msn Ibid indicate Inschriften inscriptions institutions jmj-nfrt phyle jmj-r ka-priests Kaplony Khufu king label Lacau and Lauer later mastaba Memphis Menkaure mortuary cult mortuary temple Mrrw-k3 nautical term nds phyle Neferefre Neferirkare nswt nswt-bjtj occur Old Kingdom organized into phyles parallel Petrie phyle divisions phyle name phyle organization phyle sign phyle system Posener-Krieger pr-nswt priesthoods priests private cults private tombs probably Pyramide a degr6s references to phyles reign rotation royal mortuary temples Royal Tombs Saqqara scene seems serekh spells st sign Step Pyramid storerooms strokes suggested sun temple t3 sign tablets Userkaf vizier vols w3dtjw wr phyle wr sign written