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An introduction to the studies presented here
1 Schematic sagittal diagram of an adult male vocal tract
3 The third resonance of a hypothetical tube
28 other sections not shown
6SPoM 0 P/M 6ZZI acoustic allophones American English ANOVA articulation articulatory averages and standard bimodal distribution blade Chapter constriction Delattre & Freeman dialect differences distal consonant doorIO effects of speaker F tar41 F-tests F-Value P-Value F-Value F3 values female speakers final Fl F2 F3 FlxF2 space FlxF2 vowel space formant averages formant frequencies formant values fortition initial men's right P-Value F-Value P-Value Peterson & Barney phonetic plain vowels probe contact produce qs Yi rap51 ae redI9 relatively resonance retroflex S2 F HiF3 S4 F S5 F S6 F S7 F LoF3 S8 F S9 F Sc M MF3 second formant Sf M MF3 speaker sex spectrogram standard deviations syllabic position third formant three formants tip up tip tokens tongue shape variation vocal tract vowel categories vowel context vowel formant vowel space women's data women's formant Z0ZI