The Design of Low Noise Oscillators
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 28, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 208 pages
It is hardly a revelation to note that wireless and mobile communications have grown tremendously during the last few years. This growth has placed stringent requi- ments on channel spacing and, by implication, on the phase noise of oscillators. C- pounding the challenge has been a recent drive toward implementations of transceivers in CMOS, whose inferior 1/f noise performance has usually been thought to disqualify it from use in all but the lowest-performance oscillators. Low noise oscillators are also highly desired in the digital world, of course. The c- tinued drive toward higher clock frequencies translates into a demand for ev- decreasing jitter. Clearly, there is a need for a deep understanding of the fundamental mechanisms g- erning the process by which device, substrate, and supply noise turn into jitter and phase noise. Existing models generally offer only qualitative insights, however, and it has not always been clear why they are not quantitatively correct.
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amplitude amplitude response approximated behavior calculated capacitor carrier CHAPTER charge pump circuit CMOS Colpitts oscillator correlation cyclostationary noise sources dc value differential pair differential ring oscillators effect equivalent falling edge frequency of oscillation given I//2 region I//noise impulse response inductor injected charge integer multiples integral inverter jitter and phase LC oscillator linear low frequency noise maximum measured multiple noise sources NMOS node noise and jitter noise current noise power nonlinear number of stages offset frequencies oscillation frequency oscillator of Figure parameters perturbation phase detector phase impulse response phase jitter phase noise spectrum phase shift phase-locked loops power spectrum predictions qmax quency rise and fall rms value Section shown in Figure sideband power signal simulation sinusoidal sinusoidal current slope spectral density substrate and supply supply noise supply voltage symmetry tail capacitor tail current source tank amplitude time-variant topology transfer function transistors vector waveform zero
Page 188 - V. Rizzoli, F. Mastri, and D. Masotti, General noise analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits by the piecewise harmonic balance technique, IEEE Trans, MTT, 42, 807-819, 1994.